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    Breast Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Breast Cancer

    1. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    2. Breast Cancer - High-Penetrance Breast and / or Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes

      BRCA1andBRCA2IntroductionEpidemiologic studies have clearly established the role of family history as an important risk factor for both breast and ovarian cancer. After gender and age, a positive family history is the strongest known predictive risk factor for breast cancer. However, it has long been recognized that in some families, there is hereditary breast cancer, which is characterized by an early age of onset, bilaterality, and the presence of breast cancer in multiple generations in an apparent autosomal dominant pattern of transmission (through either the maternal or paternal lineage), sometimes including tumors of other

    3. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - General Information About Male Breast Cancer

      Incidence and Mortality Estimated new cases and deaths from breast cancer (men only) in the United States in 2011:[ 1 ] New cases: 2,140. Deaths: 450. Male breast cancer is rare.[ 2 ] Less than 1% of all breast carcinomas occur in men.[ 3,4 ] The mean age at diagnosis is between 60 and 70 years,though men of all ages can be affected with the disease. Predisposing risk factors [ 5 ] appear ...

    4. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Stage Information for Breast Cancer

      The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system provides a strategy for grouping patients with respect to prognosis. Therapeutic decisions are formulated in part according to staging categories but primarily according to tumor size, lymph node status, estrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor levels in the tumor tissue, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) status, menopausal status, and the general health of the patient. Definitions of TNMThe AJCC has designated staging by TNM classification to define breast cancer.[1] When this system was modified in 2002, some nodal categories that were previously considered stage II were reclassified as stage III.[2] As a result of the stage migration phenomenon, survival by stage for case series classified by the new system will appear superior to those using the old system.[3]Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a,bDCIS = ductal carcinomain situ; LCIS = lobular

    5. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

      Inoperable Stage IIIB or IIIC or Inflammatory Breast CancerMultimodality therapy delivered with curative intent is the standard of care for patients with clinical stage IIIB disease. In a retrospective series, approximately 32% of patients with ipsilateral supraclavicular node involvement and no evidence of distant metastases (pN3c) had prolonged disease-free survival (DFS) at 10 years with combined modality therapy.[1] Although these results have not been replicated in another series, this result suggests such patients should be treated with the same intent. Initial surgery is generally limited to biopsy to permit the determination of histology, estrogen-receptor (ER) and progesterone-receptor (PR) levels, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) overexpression. Initial treatment with anthracycline-based chemotherapy and/or taxane-based therapy is standard.[2,3] In one series of 178 patients with inflammatory breast cancer, DFS

    6. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Stage Information for Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy

      Procedures used for determining the stage of breast cancer should be modified for pregnant women to avoid radiation exposure to the fetus. Nuclear scans cause fetal radiation exposure.[1] If such scans are essential for evaluation, hydration and Foley catheter drainage of the bladder can be used to prevent retention of radioactivity. Timing of the exposure to radiation relative to the gestational age of the fetus may be more critical than the actual dose of radiation delivered.[2] Radiation exposure during the first trimester (>0.1 Gy) may lead to congenital malformations, mental retardation, and increased relative risk of carcinogenesis. Doses greater than 1 Gy may produce congenital abnormalities. Doses of 0.1 Gy may result in fewer defects. Chest x-rays with abdominal shielding are considered safe, but as with all radiologic procedures, they should be used only when essential for making treatment decisions.[1,3] A chest x-ray delivers 0.00008 Gy.[4]For the diagnosis of bone

    7. Breast Cancer Screening - Changes to This Summary (10 / 24 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

    8. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of breast cancer and pregnancy. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus

    9. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

      Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if surgery or chemotherapy is planned. If surgery is planned, breast-feeding should be stopped to reduce blood flow in the breasts and make them smaller. Breast-feeding should also be stopped if chemotherapy is planned. Many anticancer drugs, especially cyclophosphamide and methotrexate, may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women receiving chemotherapy should not breast-feed. Stopping lactation does not improve survival of the mother. Breast cancer does not appear to harm the fetus.Breast cancer cells do not seem to pass from the mother to the fetus.Pregnancy does not seem to affect the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Some doctors recommend that a woman wait 2 years after treatment for breast cancer before trying to have a baby, so that any early return of the cancer would be detected. This may affect a woman's decision to become pregnant. The fetus does

    10. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - General Information About Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy

      Breast cancer is the most common cancer in pregnant and postpartum women,occurring in about 1 in 3,000 pregnant women. The average patient is between 32 to 38 years of age and,with many women choosing to delay childbearing,it is likely that the incidence of breast cancer during pregnancy will increase. Breast cancer pathology is similar in age-matched pregnant and nonpregnant women. Hormone ...

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