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Breast Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Breast Cancer

  1. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Characteristics of Cancers Detected by Screening Mammography

    Several studies have shown that the method of cancer detection is a powerful predictor of patient outcome,[1] which is useful for prognostication and treatment decisions. All of the studies accounted for stage, nodal status, and tumor size.A 10-year follow-up study of 1,983 Finnish women with invasive breast cancer demonstrated that the method of cancer detection is an independent prognostic variable. When controlled for age, nodal status, and tumor size, screen-detected cancers had a lower risk of relapse and better overall survival. For women whose cancers were detected outside screening, the hazard ratio (HR) for death was 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–3.11), even though they were more likely to receive adjuvant systemic therapy.[2]Similarly, an examination of the breast cancers found in three randomized screening trials (Health Insurance Plan, National Breast Screening Study [NBSS]-1, and NBSS-2) accounted for stage, nodal status, and tumor size and determined

  2. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    LactationSuppression of lactation does not improve prognosis. If surgery is planned, however, lactation should be suppressed to decrease the size and vascularity of the breasts. If chemotherapy is to be given, lactation should also be suppressed because many antineoplastics (i.e., cyclophosphamide and methotrexate), when given systemically, may occur in high levels in breast milk and would affect the nursing baby. In general, women receiving chemotherapy should not breastfeed.Fetal Consequences of Maternal Breast CancerNo damaging effects on the fetus from maternal breast cancer have been demonstrated, and there are no reported cases of maternal-fetal transfer of breast cancer cells. Consequences of Pregnancy in Patients with a History of Breast CancerBased on limited retrospective data, pregnancy does not appear to compromise the survival of women with a previous history of breast cancer, and no deleterious effects have been demonstrated in the fetus.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9] Some

  3. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if surgery or chemotherapy is planned. If surgery is planned, breast-feeding should be stopped to reduce blood flow in the breasts and make them smaller. Breast-feeding should also be stopped if chemotherapy is planned. Many anticancer drugs, especially cyclophosphamide and methotrexate, may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women receiving chemotherapy should not breast-feed. Stopping lactation does not improve survival of the mother. Breast cancer does not appear to harm the fetus.Breast cancer cells do not seem to pass from the mother to the fetus.Pregnancy does not seem to affect the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Some doctors recommend that a woman wait 2 years after treatment for breast cancer before trying to have a baby, so that any early return of the cancer would be detected. This may affect a woman's decision to become pregnant. The fetus does

  4. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  5. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

    Early Stage Breast Cancer (Stage I and Stage II)Treatment of early stage breast cancer (stage I and stage II) may be surgery followed by adjuvant therapy as follows: Modified radical mastectomy.Breast-conserving surgery: Lumpectomy, partial mastectomy or segmental mastectomy.Breast-conserving surgery during pregnancy followed by radiation therapy after the baby is born.Surgery during pregnancy followed by chemotherapy after the first 3 months of pregnancy.Clinical trials of surgery followed by hormone therapy with or without chemotherapy.Late Stage Breast Cancer (Stage III and Stage IV)Treatment of late stage breast cancer (stage III and stage IV) may include the following:Radiation therapy.Chemotherapy.Radiation therapy and chemotherapy should not be given during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

  6. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Breast Cancer Screening Modalities—Beyond Mammography

    Clinical Breast ExaminationNo randomized trials of clinical breast examination (CBE) as a sole screening modality have yet been reported. The Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) compared high-quality CBE plus mammography to CBE alone in women aged 50 to 59 years (refer to the Clinical Breast Examination section in the Overview section of this summary for more information). CBE, lasting 5 to 10 minutes per breast, was conducted by trained health professionals, with periodic evaluations of performance quality. The frequency of cancer diagnosis, stage, interval cancers, and breast cancer mortality were similar in the two groups and compared favorably with other trials of mammography alone, perhaps because of the careful training and supervision of the health professionals performing CBE.[1] Breast cancer mortality with follow-up 11 to 16 years after entry (mean = 13 years) was similar in the two screening arms (mortality rate ratio, 1.02 [95% confidence interval

  7. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of breast cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which

  8. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  9. Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062855-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer

  10. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 31 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.

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