Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - About PDQ
PDQ IS A COMPREHENSIVE CANCER DATABASE AVAILABLE ON NCI'S WEB SITE. PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ is provided as a service of the NCI.
Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (04 / 04 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Stage I, II, IIIA, and Operable IIIC Breast CancerAdded Davies et al. as reference 90. Added text to state that it is controversial whether the optimal duration of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy in premenopausal women is 5 years or 10 years.Added text to state that long-term follow-up of the Adjuvant Tamoxifen Longer Against Shorter (ATLAS) trial revealed that 10 years of tamoxifen reduced the risk of breast cancer recurrence, reduced breast cancer mortality, and reduced overall mortality (Level of evidence: 1iiA). Included text to list the risks of tamoxifen therapy after 10 years. Added text to state that the cumulative risk of endometrial cancer during years 5 to 14 from breast cancer diagnosis was 3.1% for women who received 10 years of tamoxifen versus 1.6% for women who received 5 years of
Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Inflammatory Male Breast Cancer
In inflammatory breast cancer,cancer has spread to the skin of the breast and the breast looks red and swollen and feels warm. The redness and warmth occur because the cancercells block the lymph vessels in the skin. The skin of the breast may also show the dimpled appearance called peau d'orange (like the skin of an orange). There may not be any lumps in the breast that can be felt. ...
Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Breast Cancer
Treatment of recurrent breast cancer (cancer that has come back after treatment) in the breast or chest wall may include the following: Surgery (radical or modified radical mastectomy),radiation therapy,or both. Systemic chemotherapy or hormone therapy. A clinical trial of trastuzumab (Herceptin) combined with systemic chemotherapy. ...
Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Introduction
General Information Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are found in the NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms. When a linked term is clicked,the definition will appear in a separate window. Among women,breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer after nonmelanoma skin cancer,and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer. In 2008,an ...
Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Sources of further information about Male Breast Cancer Treatment.
Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Breast Cancer Screening Modalities—Mammography
Mammography Description and BackgroundMammography utilizes ionizing radiation to image breast tissue. The examination is performed by compressing the breast firmly between two plates. Such compression spreads out overlapping tissues and reduces the amount of radiation needed to image the breast. For routine screening in the United States, examinations are taken in both mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal projections. Both views should include breast tissue from the nipple to the pectoral muscle. Radiation exposure is 4 to 24 mSv per standard two-view screening examination. Two-view examinations are associated with a lower recall rate than are single-view examinations because they eliminate concern about abnormalities due to superimposition of normal breast structures.Under the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) enacted by Congress in 1992, all U.S. facilities that perform mammography must be certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure the
Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in pregnant and postpartum women,occurring in about 1 in 3,000 pregnant women. The average patient is between 32 to 38 years of age and,with many women choosing to delay childbearing,it is likely that the incidence of breast cancer during pregnancy will increase. Breast cancer pathology is similar in age-matched pregnant and nonpregnant women. Hormone ...
Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (03 / 04 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.IntroductionUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths of breast cancer and ovarian cancer for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Added Figure 1, Classic BRCA1 Pedigree.Added Figure 2, Classic BRCA2 Pedigree.Revised text to state that studies examining the impact of radiation exposure, including, but not limited to, mammography, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have had conflicting results (cited Goldfrank et al., Gronwald et al., and Pijpe et al. as references 44, 45, and 46, respectively). Also added text to state that a large European study showed a dose-response relationship of increased risk with total radiation exposure, but this was primarily driven by nonmammographic radiation exposure before age 20 years.High-Penetrance Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer
Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Breast Cancer Screening Modalities—Beyond Mammography
Clinical Breast ExaminationNo randomized trials of clinical breast examination (CBE) as a sole screening modality have yet been reported. The Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) compared high-quality CBE plus mammography to CBE alone in women aged 50 to 59 years (refer to the Clinical Breast Examination section in the Overview section of this summary for more information). CBE, lasting 5 to 10 minutes per breast, was conducted by trained health professionals, with periodic evaluations of performance quality. The frequency of cancer diagnosis, stage, interval cancers, and breast cancer mortality were similar in the two groups and compared favorably with other trials of mammography alone, perhaps because of the careful training and supervision of the health professionals performing CBE. Breast cancer mortality with follow-up 11 to 16 years after entry (mean = 13 years) was similar in the two screening arms (mortality rate ratio, 1.02 [95% confidence interval