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Breast Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Breast Cancer

  1. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Late Stage Breast Cancer (Stage III and IV)

    First-trimester radiation therapy should be avoided. Chemotherapy may be given after the first trimester as discussed in the section on Early Stage Breast Cancer. Because the mother may have a limited life span (most studies show a 5-year survival rate of 10% in pregnant patients with stage III and IV disease), and there is a risk of fetal damage with treatment during the first trimester,[1,2] issues regarding continuation of the pregnancy should be discussed with the patient and her family. Therapeutic abortion does not improve prognosis.[1,2,3,4,5]References: Hoover HC Jr: Breast cancer during pregnancy and lactation. Surg Clin North Am 70 (5): 1151-63, 1990. Rugo HS: Management of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy. Curr Treat Options Oncol 4 (2): 165-73, 2003. Gwyn K, Theriault R: Breast cancer during pregnancy. Oncology (Huntingt) 15 (1): 39-46; discussion 46, 49-51, 2001. Clark RM, Chua T: Breast cancer and pregnancy: the ultimate challenge. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 1

  2. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Characteristics of Cancers Detected by Screening Mammography

    Several studies have shown that the method of cancer detection is a powerful predictor of patient outcome,[1] which is useful for prognostication and treatment decisions. All of the studies accounted for stage, nodal status, and tumor size.A 10-year follow-up study of 1,983 Finnish women with invasive breast cancer demonstrated that the method of cancer detection is an independent prognostic variable. When controlled for age, nodal status, and tumor size, screen-detected cancers had a lower risk of relapse and better overall survival. For women whose cancers were detected outside screening, the hazard ratio (HR) for death was 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–3.11), even though they were more likely to receive adjuvant systemic therapy.[2]Similarly, an examination of the breast cancers found in three randomized screening trials (Health Insurance Plan, National Breast Screening Study [NBSS]-1, and NBSS-2) accounted for stage, nodal status, and tumor size and determined

  3. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Breast Cancer

    After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out whether the cancer has spread within the breast or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:Sentinel lymph node biopsy: The removal of the sentinel lymph node during surgery. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a tumor. It is the first lymph node the cancer is likely to spread to from the tumor. A radioactive substance and/or blue dye is injected near the tumor. The substance or dye flows through the lymph ducts to the lymph nodes. The first lymph node to receive the substance or dye is removed. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to

  4. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Mammography - Variables Associated with Accuracy

    Patient CharacteristicsSeveral characteristics of women being screened that are associated with the accuracy of mammography include age, breast density, whether it is the first or subsequent exam, and time since last mammogram. Younger women have lower sensitivity and higher false-positive rates on screening mammography than do older women (refer to the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium performance measures by age for more information).For women of all ages, high breast density is associated with 10% to 29% lower sensitivity.[1] High breast density is an inherent trait, which can be familial [2,3] but also may be affected by age, endogenous [4] and exogenous [5,6] hormones,[7] selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen,[8] and diet.[9] Hormone therapy is associated with increased breast density and is associated not only with lower sensitivity but also with an increased rate of interval cancers.[10]The Million Women Study in the United Kingdom revealed

  5. Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  6. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  7. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

    Stage I, Stage II, Stage IIIA, and Operable Stage IIIC Breast CancerTreatment of stage I, stage II, stage IIIA, and operable stage IIIC breast cancer may include the following:Breast-conserving surgery to remove only the cancer and some surrounding breast tissue, followed by lymph node dissection and radiation therapy.Modified radical mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction surgery.Sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by surgery.Adjuvant therapy (treatment given after surgery to lower the risk that cancer will come back) may include the following: Radiation therapy to the lymph nodes near the breast and to the chest wall after a modified radical mastectomy.Chemotherapy with or without hormone therapy.Hormone therapy.Monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy.A clinical trial of new targeted therapies.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I breast cancer, stage II breast

  8. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Breast Cancer

    The following is a list of breast cancer histologic classifications.[1] Infiltrating or invasive ductal cancer is the most common breast cancer histologic type and comprises 70% to 80% of all cases. Carcinoma, NOS (not otherwise specified).Ductal. Intraductal (in situ). Invasive with predominant intraductal component.Invasive, NOS.Comedo.Inflammatory.Medullary with lymphocytic infiltrate.Mucinous (colloid).Papillary.Scirrhous.Tubular.Other.Lobular. In situ. Invasive with predominant in situ component. Invasive.[2]Nipple. Paget disease, NOS.Paget disease with intraductal carcinoma.Paget disease with invasive ductal carcinoma.Other. Undifferentiated carcinoma.The following are tumor subtypes that occur in the breast but are not considered to be typical breast cancers: Phyllodes tumor.[3,4]Angiosarcoma.Primary lymphoma.References: Breast. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 347-76. Yeatman TJ, Cantor AB,

  9. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062970-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy

  10. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Early Stage Breast Cancer (Stage I and II)

    Surgery is recommended as the primary treatment of breast cancer in pregnant women. Since radiation in therapeutic doses may expose the fetus to potentially harmful scatter radiation,[1] modified radical mastectomy is the treatment of choice. Conservative surgery with postpartum radiation therapy has been used for breast preservation.[2] An analysis has been performed that helps to predict the risk of waiting to have radiation.[3,4]If adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary, it should not be given during the first trimester to avoid the risk of teratogenicity. Chemotherapy given after the first trimester is generally not associated with a high risk of fetal malformation but may be associated with premature labor and fetal wastage. If considered necessary, chemotherapy may be given after the first trimester. Data on the immediate and long-term effects of chemotherapy on the fetus are limited.[2,4,5,6,7,8,9]Studies using adjuvant hormonal therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy

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