Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I, II, IIIA, and Operable IIIC Breast Cancer
Primary TherapyLocal-regional treatmentStage I, II, IIIA, and operable IIIC breast cancer often requires a multimodality approach to treatment. Irrespective of the eventual procedure selected, the diagnostic biopsy and surgical procedure that will be used as primary treatment should be performed as two separate procedures. In many cases, the diagnosis of breast carcinoma is made by core needle biopsy. After the presence of a malignancy is confirmed, treatment options should be discussed with the patient before a therapeutic procedure is selected. Estrogen-receptor (ER) and progesterone-receptor (PR) protein status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) status should be determined for the primary
Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Breast Cancer Prevention, Breast Cancer Treatment, Male Breast Cancer Treatment, and Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy are also available.This summary covers the topic of breast cancer screening and includes information about breast cancer incidence and mortality, risk factors for breast cancer, the process of breast cancer diagnosis, and the benefits and harms of various breast cancer screening modalities. This summary also includes information about screening among special populations.Mammography is the most widely used screening modality, with solid evidence of benefit for women aged 40 to 74 years. Clinical breast examination and breast self-exam have also been evaluated but are of uncertain benefit. Technologies such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, tomosynthesis, and molecular breast imaging are being evaluated, usually as adjuncts to mammography.Screening With MammographyBenefitsBased on solid evidence, screening mammography may
Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 22 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
IntroductionDuctal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive condition. DCIS can progress to become invasive cancer, but estimates of the likelihood of this vary widely. Some people include DCIS in breast cancer statistics. The frequency of the diagnosis of DCIS has increased markedly in the United States since the widespread use of screening mammography. In 1998, DCIS accounted for about 18% of all newly diagnosed invasive plus noninvasive breast tumors in the United States. Very few cases of DCIS present as a palpable mass; 80% are diagnosed by mammography alone. DCIS comprises a heterogeneous group of histopathologic lesions that have been classified into several subtypes based primarily on architectural pattern: micropapillary, papillary, solid, cribriform, and comedo. Comedo-type DCIS consists of cells that appear cytologically malignant, with the presence of high-grade nuclei, pleomorphism, and abundant central luminal necrosis. Comedo-type DCIS appears to be more aggressive,
Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Low- and Moderate-Penetrance Genes Associated With Breast and / or Ovarian Cancer
BackgroundMutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and the genes involved in other rare syndromes discussed in the High-Penetrance Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes section of this summary account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer. Despite intensive genetic linkage studies, there do not appear to be other BRCA1/BRCA2-like high-penetrance genes that account for a significant fraction of the remaining multiple-case familial clusters. These observations suggest that the remaining breast cancer susceptibility is polygenic in nature, meaning that a relatively large number of low-penetrance genes are involved. On its own, each low-penetrance locus would be expected to have a relatively small effect on breast cancer risk and would not produce dramatic familial aggregation or influence patient management. However in
Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview
Factors Associated with Increased Risk of Breast Cancer
Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence
BackgroundBreast cancer incidence and mortalityBreast cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in U.S. women, with an estimated 64,640 cases of in situ disease, 232,340 new cases of invasive disease, and 39,620 deaths expected in 2013. Thus, fewer than 1 of 6 women diagnosed with breast cancer die of the disease. By comparison, about 72,220 American women are estimated to die of lung cancer in 2013. Males account for 1% of breast cancer cases and breast cancer deaths (refer to the Special Populations section of this summary for more information).Widespread adoption of screening increases breast cancer incidence in a given population and changes the characteristics of cancers detected, with increased incidence of lower-risk cancers, premalignant lesions, and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (Refer to the Ductal Carcinoma In Situ section in the Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology section of this summary for more information.) Ecologic studies from the United States  and
Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Breast Cancer
Other PDQ summaries containing information related to breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer
LactationSuppression of lactation does not improve prognosis. If surgery is planned, however, lactation should be suppressed to decrease the size and vascularity of the breasts. If chemotherapy is to be given, lactation should also be suppressed because many antineoplastics (i.e., cyclophosphamide and methotrexate), when given systemically, may occur in high levels in breast milk and would affect the nursing baby. In general, women receiving chemotherapy should not breastfeed.Fetal Consequences of Maternal Breast CancerNo damaging effects on the fetus from maternal breast cancer have been demonstrated, and there are no reported cases of maternal-fetal transfer of breast cancer cells. Consequences of Pregnancy in Patients with a History of Breast CancerBased on limited retrospective data, pregnancy does not appear to compromise the survival of women with a previous history of breast cancer, and no deleterious effects have been demonstrated in the fetus.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9] Some
Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)
Treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may include the following:Breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy with or without tamoxifen.Total mastectomy with or without tamoxifen.Breast-conserving surgery without radiation therapy.Clinical trials testing breast-conserving surgery and tamoxifen with or without radiation therapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with ductal breast carcinoma in situ. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.