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Breast Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Breast Cancer

  1. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (12 / 03 / 2010)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  2. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

    Early Stage Breast Cancer (Stage I and Stage II)Treatment of early stage breast cancer (stage I and stage II) may be surgery followed by adjuvant therapy as follows: Modified radical mastectomy.Breast-conserving surgery: Lumpectomy, partial mastectomy or segmental mastectomy.Breast-conserving surgery during pregnancy followed by radiation therapy after the baby is born.Surgery during pregnancy followed by chemotherapy after the first 3 months of pregnancy.Clinical trials of surgery followed by hormone therapy with or without chemotherapy.Late Stage Breast Cancer (Stage III and Stage IV)Treatment of late stage breast cancer (stage III and stage IV) may include the following:Radiation therapy.Chemotherapy.Radiation therapy and chemotherapy should not be given during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

  3. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology

    Evaluation of Breast SymptomsWomen with breast symptoms are not candidates for screening because they require a diagnostic evaluation. During a 10-year period, 16% of 2,400 women aged 40 to 69 years sought medical attention for breast symptoms at their health maintenance organization.[1] Women younger than 50 years were twice as likely to seek evaluation. Additional testing was performed in 66% of these women, including invasive procedures performed in 27%. Cancer was diagnosed in 6.2%, most often stage II or III. Of the breast symptoms prompting medical attention, a mass was most likely to lead to a cancer diagnosis (10.7%) and pain was least likely (1.8%) to do so.Pathologic Diagnosis of Breast CancerBreast cancer is most often diagnosed by pathologic review of a fixed specimen of breast tissue. The breast tissue can be obtained from a symptomatic area or from an area identified by an imaging test. A palpable lesion can be biopsied with core needle biopsy or, less often, fine-needle

  4. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  5. Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062855-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer

  6. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Harms of Screening Mammography

    Mammography screening may be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in certain populations, but it can pose harm to women who participate. The limitations are best described as false-positives (related to the specificity of the test), overdiagnosis (true-positives that will not become clinically significant), false-negatives (related to the sensitivity of the test), discomfort associated with the test, radiation risk and anxiety.False-Positives Leading to Possible Additional InterventionsThe specificity of mammography (refer to the Breast Cancer Screening Concepts section of this summary for more information) affects the number of additional interventions due to false-positive results. Even though breast cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in women, fewer than 5 per 1,000 women actually have the disease when they are screened. Therefore, even with a specificity of 90%, most abnormal mammograms are false-positives.[1] Women with abnormal

  7. Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062745-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Male Breast Cancer Treatment

  8. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000257995-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Breast Cancer Screening

  9. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Breast Cancer Screening Concepts

    BiasNumerous uncontrolled trials and retrospective series have documented the ability of mammography to diagnose small, early-stage breast cancers, which have a favorable clinical course.[1] Although several trials also show better cancer-related survival in screened versus nonscreened women, a number of important biases may explain that finding:Lead-time bias: Survival time for a cancer found mammographically includes the time between detection and the time when the cancer would have been detected because of clinical symptoms, but this time is not included in the survival time of cancers found because of symptoms.Length bias: Mammography detects a cancer while it is preclinical, and preclinical durations vary. Cancers with longer preclinical durations are, by definition, present during more opportunities for discovery and therefore are more likely to be detected by screening; these cancers tend to be slow growing and to have better prognoses, irrespective of screening.Overdiagnosis

  10. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of breast cancer and pregnancy. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus

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