Annual Mammography from Age 45 Onward Verified to Reduce Death From Breast Cancer
Dec. 17, 1999 (Atlanta) -- Annual breast cancer screening beginning at age
45 can dramatically curtail deaths due to breast cancer, according to an
abstract presented at the 22nd Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. The
finding upholds the current screening recommendations of the National Cancer
Institute. Additionally, screening twice-yearly from age 40 onward may yield an
even greater reduction in such deaths.
In the U.S., breast cancer ranks as the most frequently diagnosed non-skin
cancer among women, and associated risk rises as women age. Currently, the
National Cancer Institute recommends that women age 40 and up receive
mammograms every one to two years. Although many women also perform breast
self-exams, this is not considered a substitute for clinical breast exams or
"We were surprised to see how effective mammography is at reducing
breast cancer death if used frequently enough," lead author James
Michaelson, PhD, tells WebMD. "[And,] we were surprised to see how much
life is lost if mammography is not used frequently enough. ... The most
important, immediate finding is that women should attend [breast cancer]
screening promptly at 12-month intervals. That can lead to a great reduction in
breast cancer death." Michaelson is an assistant professor at Harvard
Medical School and is on staff at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.
In this study, a computer simulation model was developed based on estimates
of the size of the smallest breast cancer tumors detectable on mammography and
palpation, rates of growth, and rates of spread. Using a database, the model
forecasted the number of deaths prevented due to breast cancer screening.
The findings agree with the 30% reduction in breast cancer deaths found in
studies. The investigators found a 45% lifetime reduction in breast cancer
death by annual screening from age 45 onward and a 60% lifetime reduction in
breast cancer death by twice-yearly screening from age 40 onward. "The risk
of death from breast cancer increases much more than linearly with time at
12-month intervals," says Michaelson. "It's based upon the underlying
mathematical model of breast cancer growth and spread. We have learned that the
probability of spread from the initial site occurs as a function of the number
of cells in the tumor. As the tumor gets larger, the probability of potentially
lethal spread increases."
Cost was determined most likely not to be a barrier to screening more often,
according to cost-benefit analyses.
Future studies should further investigate whether twice-yearly screening is
more beneficial than annual screening, says Michaelson.
- Researchers have shown that annual breast cancer screening after age 45 can
significantly reduce breast cancer deaths and screening twice-yearly after age
40 results in an even greater reduction.
- Future studies need to examine whether annual or twice-yearly screening is
- The National Cancer Institute recommends that all women age 40 and over
receive mammograms every one to two years.