False-positive rates vary significantly between facilities performing diagnostic mammography and are higher at facilities where concern about malpractice is high. False-positive rates are also higher at facilities serving vulnerable women (women of racial or ethnic minorities and women with lower educational attainment, limited household income, or rural residence) than at facilities serving nonvulnerable women, perhaps because of poorer compliance with recommendations for follow-up examinations. Analyses that do not adjust for important patient characteristics may falsely conclude that there is more facility variation in overall accuracy than actually exists.
International comparisons of screening mammography have found higher specificity in countries with more highly centralized screening systems and national quality assurance programs.[24,25] For example, one study reported that the recall rate is twice as high in the United States as it is in the United Kingdom, yet there is no difference in the rate of cancers detected. Such comparisons may be confounded by social, cultural, and economic factors.
Prevalent Versus Subsequent Examination and the Interval Between Exams
The likelihood of diagnosing cancer is highest with the prevalent (first) screening examination, ranging from 9 to 26 cancers per 1,000 screens, depending on the woman's age. The likelihood decreases for follow-up examinations, ranging from 1 to 3 cancers per 1,000 screens. The optimal interval between screening mammograms is unknown. In particular, the breast cancer mortality-focused, randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) used single screening intervals with little variability across the trials. A prospective United Kingdom trial randomly assigned women aged 50 to 62 years to receive mammograms annually or at the standard 3-year interval. Although the grade and node status were similar in both groups, more cancers of slightly smaller size were detected in the annual screening group, with a lead time of approximately 7 months in comparison with triennial screening.
A large observational study found a slightly increased risk of late-stage disease at diagnosis for women in their 40s who were adhering to a 2-year versus a 1-year schedule (28% vs. 21%; odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.81), but no difference was seen for women in their 50s or 60s.[28,29]
A Finnish study of 14,765 women aged 40 to 49 years assigned women born in even-numbered years to annual screens and women born in odd-numbered years to triennial screens. The study was small in terms of number of deaths, with low power to discriminate breast cancer mortality between the two groups. There were 18 deaths from breast cancer in 100,738 life-years in the triennial screening group and 18 deaths from breast cancer in 88,780 life-years in the annual screening group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59–1.27).