Table 10. Predictors Associated with Uptake of Genetic Testing (GT) continued...
Psychosocial Aspects of Cancer Risk Management for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer
Decision aids for persons considering risk management options for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer
There is a small but growing body of literature on the use of decision aids as an adjunct to standard genetic counseling to assist patients in making informed decisions about cancer risk management.[211,212,213,214] One study showed that the use of a decision aid consisting of individualized value assessment and cancer risk management information after receiving positive BRCA1/BRCA2 test results was associated with fewer intrusive thoughts and lower levels of depression at the 6-month follow-up in unaffected women. Use of the decision aid did not alter cancer risk management intentions and behaviors. Slightly detrimental effects on well-being and several decision-related outcomes, however, were noted among affected women. Another study compared responses to a tailored decision aid (including a values-clarification exercise) versus a general information pamphlet intended for women making decisions about ovarian cancer risk management. In the short term, the women receiving the tailored decision aid showed a decrease in decisional conflict and increased knowledge compared with women receiving the pamphlet, but no differences in decisional outcomes were found between the two groups. In addition, the decision aid did not appear to alter the participant's baseline cancer risk management decisions. A third decision aid focused on breast cancer risk management decision support for women with a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation. Pre-evaluations and postevaluations of the decision aid in 20 women showed that use of the aid resulted in a significant decrease in decisional conflict, improvement in knowledge, and a decrease in uncertainty about tamoxifen use, RRM and RRSO. No significant differences were identified in cancer-related distress following the use of the tool.
Uptake of cancer risk management options
An increasing number of studies have examined uptake and adherence to cancer risk management options among individuals who have undergone genetic counseling and testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. Findings from these studies are reported in Table 11 and Table 12. Outcomes vary across studies and include uptake or adherence to screening (mammography, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], cancer antigen [CA] 125, transvaginal ultrasound [TVUS]) and selection of RRM and RRSO. Studies generally report outcomes by mutation carrier or testing status (e.g., mutation-positive, mutation-negative, or declined genetic testing). Follow-up time after notification of genetic risk status also varied across studies, ranging from 12 months up to several years.
Findings from these studies suggest that breast screening often improves after notification of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carrier status; nonetheless, screening remains suboptimal. Fewer studies have examined adoption of MRI as a screening modality, probably due to the recent availability of efficacy data. Screening for ovarian cancer varied widely across studies, and also varied based on type of screening test (i.e., CA-125 serum testing vs. TVUS screening). However, ovarian cancer screening does not appear to be widely adopted by BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. Uptake of RRM varied widely across studies, and may be influenced by personal factors (such as younger age or having a family history of breast cancer), psychosocial factors (such as a desire for reduction of cancer-related distress), recommendations of the health care provider, and cultural or health care system factors. An individual's choice to have a bilateral mastectomy also appears to be influenced by pretreatment genetic education and counseling regardless of the genetic test results. Similarly, uptake of RRSO also varied across studies, and may be influenced by similar factors, including older age, personal history of breast cancer, perceived risk of ovarian cancer, cultural factors (i.e., country), and the recommendations of the health care provider.