Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Breast Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Psychosocial Issues in Inherited Breast Cancer Syndromes

Table 11. Uptake of Risk-reducing Salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) and/or Gynecologic Screening AmongBRCA1andBRCA2Mutation Carriers continued...

The issue of screening decision-making and adherence among women undergoing genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer is the subject of \several ongoing trials, and an area of much needed ongoing study.


  1. Lynch HT, Fitzsimmons ML, Lynch J, et al.: A hereditary cancer consultation clinic. Nebr Med J 74 (12): 351-9, 1989.
  2. Eeles RA, ed.: Genetic Predisposition to Cancer. London, England: Chapman and Hall Medical, 1996.
  3. Baty BJ, Venne VL, McDonald J, et al.: BRCA1 testing: genetic counseling protocol development and counseling issues. J Genet Couns 6(2): 223-244, 1997.
  4. Hoskins IA: Genetic counseling for cancer patients and their families. Oncology (Huntingt) 3 (1): 84-92; discussion 92, 95-8, 1989.
  5. Lynch HT, Lynch J: Genetic counseling for hereditary cancer. Oncology (Huntingt) 10 (1): 27-34, 1996.
  6. McKinnon WC, Guttmacher AE, Greenblatt MS, et al.: The Familial Cancer Program of the Vermont Cancer Center: development of a cancer genetics program in a rural area. J Genet Couns 6(2): 131-145, 1997.
  7. Offit K: Clinical Cancer Genetics: Risk Counseling and Management. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1998.
  8. Peters JA: Familial cancer risk, part II: breast cancer risk counseling and genetic susceptibility testing. J Oncol Manag 3 (6): 14-22, 1994.
  9. Ponder BA: Setting up and running a familial cancer clinic. Br Med Bull 50 (3): 732-45, 1994.
  10. Collins FS, Thomson EJ: Findings from the cancer genetic studies consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8 (special issue): 325, 1999.
  11. Calzone KA, Biesecker BB: Genetic testing for cancer predisposition. Cancer Nurs 25 (1): 15-25; quiz 26-7, 2002.
  12. Ropka ME, Wenzel J, Phillips EK, et al.: Uptake rates for breast cancer genetic testing: a systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15 (5): 840-55, 2006.
  13. Olaya W, Esquivel P, Wong JH, et al.: Disparities in BRCA testing: when insurance coverage is not a barrier. Am J Surg 198 (4): 562-5, 2009.
  14. Metcalfe KA, Fan I, McLaughlin J, et al.: Uptake of clinical genetic testing for ovarian cancer in Ontario: a population-based study. Gynecol Oncol 112 (1): 68-72, 2009.
  15. Lynch HT, Snyder CL, Lynch JF, et al.: Family information service participation increases the rates of mutation testing among members of families with BRCA1/2 mutations. Breast J 15 (Suppl 1): S20-4, 2009 Sep-Oct.
  16. Bowen DJ, Patenaude AF, Vernon SW: Psychosocial issues in cancer genetics: from the laboratory to the public. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8 (4 Pt 2): 326-8, 1999.
  17. Lee SC, Bernhardt BA, Helzlsouer KJ: Utilization of BRCA1/2 genetic testing in the clinical setting: report from a single institution. Cancer 94 (6): 1876-85, 2002.
  18. Durfy SJ, Buchanan TE, Burke W: Testing for inherited susceptibility to breast cancer: a survey of informed consent forms for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing. Am J Med Genet 75 (1): 82-7, 1998.
  19. Geller G, Doksum T, Bernhardt BA, et al.: Participation in breast cancer susceptibility testing protocols: influence of recruitment source, altruism, and family involvement on women's decisions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8 (4 Pt 2): 377-83, 1999.
  20. Kash KM, Holland JC, Halper MS, et al.: Psychological distress and surveillance behaviors of women with a family history of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 84 (1): 24-30, 1992.
  21. Lerman C, Schwartz M: Adherence and psychological adjustment among women at high risk for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 28 (2): 145-55, 1993.
  22. Armstrong K, Calzone K, Stopfer J, et al.: Factors associated with decisions about clinical BRCA1/2 testing. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9 (11): 1251-4, 2000.
  23. Armstrong K, Stopfer J, Calzone K, et al.: What does my doctor think? Preferences for knowing the doctor's opinion among women considering clinical testing for BRCA1/2 mutations. Genet Test 6 (2): 115-8, 2002 Summer.
  24. McCuaig JM, Greenwood CM, Shuman C, et al.: Breast and ovarian cancer: the forgotten paternal contribution. J Genet Couns 20 (5): 442-9, 2011.
  25. Burke W, Culver J, Pinsky L, et al.: Genetic assessment of breast cancer risk in primary care practice. Am J Med Genet A 149A (3): 349-56, 2009.
  26. Mouchawar J, Klein CE, Mullineaux L: Colorado family physicians' knowledge of hereditary breast cancer and related practice. J Cancer Educ 16 (1): 33-7, 2001.
  27. Yong MC, Zhou XJ, Lee SC: The importance of paternal family history in hereditary breast cancer is underappreciated by health care professionals. Oncology 64 (3): 220-6, 2003.
  28. Shannon KM, Muzikansky A, Chan-Smutko G, et al.: Uptake of BRCA1 rearrangement panel testing: in individuals previously tested for BRCA1/2 mutations. Genet Med 8 (12): 740-5, 2006.
  29. Lerman C, Hughes C, Lemon SJ, et al.: What you don't know can hurt you: adverse psychologic effects in members of BRCA1-linked and BRCA2-linked families who decline genetic testing. J Clin Oncol 16 (5): 1650-4, 1998.
  30. Lodder L, Frets PG, Trijsburg RW, et al.: Attitudes and distress levels in women at risk to carry a BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutation who decline genetic testing. Am J Med Genet 119A (3): 266-72, 2003.
  31. Foster C, Evans DG, Eeles R, et al.: Non-uptake of predictive genetic testing for BRCA1/2 among relatives of known carriers: attributes, cancer worry, and barriers to testing in a multicenter clinical cohort. Genet Test 8 (1): 23-9, 2004.
  32. McInerney-Leo A, Biesecker BB, Hadley DW, et al.: BRCA1/2 testing in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families II: impact on relationships. Am J Med Genet A 133 (2): 165-9, 2005.
  33. Struewing JP, Lerman C, Kase RG, et al.: Anticipated uptake and impact of genetic testing in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4 (2): 169-73, 1995.
  34. Rimer BK, Schildkraut JM, Lerman C, et al.: Participation in a women's breast cancer risk counseling trial. Who participates? Who declines? High Risk Breast Cancer Consortium. Cancer 77 (11): 2348-55, 1996.
  35. Jacobsen PB, Valdimarsdottier HB, Brown KL, et al.: Decision-making about genetic testing among women at familial risk for breast cancer. Psychosom Med 59 (5): 459-66, 1997 Sep-Oct.
  36. Lerman C, Hughes C, Benkendorf JL, et al.: Racial differences in testing motivation and psychological distress following pretest education for BRCA1 gene testing. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8 (4 Pt 2): 361-7, 1999.
  37. Durfy SJ, Bowen DJ, McTiernan A, et al.: Attitudes and interest in genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility in diverse groups of women in western Washington. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8 (4 Pt 2): 369-75, 1999.
  38. Evans DG, Binchy A, Shenton A, et al.: Comparison of proactive and usual approaches to offering predictive testing for BRCA1/2 mutations in unaffected relatives. Clin Genet 75 (2): 124-32, 2009.
  39. Kessler L, Collier A, Brewster K, et al.: Attitudes about genetic testing and genetic testing intentions in African American women at increased risk for hereditary breast cancer. Genet Med 7 (4): 230-8, 2005.
  40. Armstrong K, Micco E, Carney A, et al.: Racial differences in the use of BRCA1/2 testing among women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. JAMA 293 (14): 1729-36, 2005.
  41. Winer E, Winer N, Bluman L, et al.: Attitudes and risk perceptions of women with breast cancer considering testing for BRCA1/2. [Abstract] Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 16: A1937, 537a, 1997.
  42. Braithwaite D, Emery J, Walter F, et al.: Psychological impact of genetic counseling for familial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 96 (2): 122-33, 2004.
  43. Mikkelsen EM, Sunde L, Johansen C, et al.: Psychosocial conditions of women awaiting genetic counseling: a population-based study. J Genet Couns 17 (3): 242-51, 2008.
  44. Dorval M, Bouchard K, Maunsell E, et al.: Health behaviors and psychological distress in women initiating BRCA1/2 genetic testing: comparison with control population. J Genet Couns 17 (4): 314-26, 2008.
  45. Wang C, Gonzalez R, Janz N, et al.: The role of cognitive appraisal and worry in BRCA1/2 testing decisions among a clinic population. Psychol Health 22 (6): 719-36, 2007.
  46. Hallowell N, Statham H, Murton F: Women's understanding of their risk of developing breast/ovarian cancer before and after genetic counseling. J Genet Couns 7(4): 345-364, 1998.
  47. MacDonald DJ, Choi J, Ferrell B, et al.: Concerns of women presenting to a comprehensive cancer centre for genetic cancer risk assessment. J Med Genet 39 (7): 526-30, 2002.
  48. Matloff ET, Moyer A, Shannon KM, et al.: Healthy women with a family history of breast cancer: impact of a tailored genetic counseling intervention on risk perception, knowledge, and menopausal therapy decision making. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 15 (7): 843-56, 2006.
  49. Bluman LG, Rimer BK, Berry DA, et al.: Attitudes, knowledge, and risk perceptions of women with breast and/or ovarian cancer considering testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. J Clin Oncol 17 (3): 1040-6, 1999.
  50. Iglehart JD, Miron A, Rimer BK, et al.: Overestimation of hereditary breast cancer risk. Ann Surg 228 (3): 375-84, 1998.
  51. Bluman LG, Rimer BK, Regan Sterba K, et al.: Attitudes, knowledge, risk perceptions and decision-making among women with breast and/or ovarian cancer considering testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 and their spouses. Psychooncology 12 (5): 410-27, 2003 Jul-Aug.
  52. McCaul KD, O'Donnell SM: Naive beliefs about breast cancer risk. Womens Health 4 (1): 93-101, 1998 Spring.
  53. Huiart L, Eisinger F, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, et al.: Effects of genetic consultation on perception of a family risk of breast/ovarian cancer and determinants of inaccurate perception after the consultation. J Clin Epidemiol 55 (7): 665-75, 2002.
  54. Davis S, Stewart S, Bloom J: Increasing the accuracy of perceived breast cancer risk: results from a randomized trial with Cancer Information Service callers. Prev Med 39 (1): 64-73, 2004.
  55. Katapodi MC, Dodd MJ, Lee KA, et al.: Underestimation of breast cancer risk: influence on screening behavior. Oncol Nurs Forum 36 (3): 306-14, 2009.
  56. Lindberg NM, Wellisch D: Anxiety and compliance among women at high risk for breast cancer. Ann Behav Med 23 (4): 298-303, 2001 Fall.
  57. Ritvo P, Irvine J, Robinson G, et al.: Psychological adjustment to familial-genetic risk assessment for ovarian cancer: predictors of nonadherence to surveillance recommendations. Gynecol Oncol 84 (1): 72-80, 2002.
  58. Meiser B, Halliday JL: What is the impact of genetic counselling in women at increased risk of developing hereditary breast cancer? A meta-analytic review. Soc Sci Med 54 (10): 1463-70, 2002.
  59. Green J, Richards M, Murton F, et al.: Family communication and genetic counseling: the case of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. J Genet Couns 6(1): 45-60, 1997.
  60. Quillin JM, Ramakrishnan V, Borzelleca J, et al.: Paternal relatives and family history of breast cancer. Am J Prev Med 31 (3): 265-8, 2006.
  61. O'Neill SM, Rubinstein WS, Wang C, et al.: Familial risk for common diseases in primary care: the Family Healthware Impact Trial. Am J Prev Med 36 (6): 506-14, 2009.
  62. Rubinstein WS, O'neill SM, Rothrock N, et al.: Components of family history associated with women's disease perceptions for cancer: a report from the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial. Genet Med 13 (1): 52-62, 2011.
  63. Theis B, Boyd N, Lockwood G, et al.: Accuracy of family cancer history in breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Prev 3 (4): 321-7, 1994.
  64. Breuer B, Kash KM, Rosenthal G, et al.: Reporting bilaterality status in first-degree relatives with breast cancer: a validity study. Genet Epidemiol 10 (4): 245-56, 1993.
  65. Parent ME, Ghadirian P, Lacroix A, et al.: The reliability of recollections of family history: implications for the medical provider. J Cancer Educ 12 (2): 114-20, 1997 Summer.
  66. Kelly KM, Shedlosky-Shoemaker R, Porter K, et al.: Cancer family history reporting: impact of method and psychosocial factors. J Genet Couns 16 (3): 373-82, 2007.
  67. Kerber RA, Slattery ML: Comparison of self-reported and database-linked family history of cancer data in a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 146 (3): 244-8, 1997.
  68. Kerr B, Foulkes WD, Cade D, et al.: False family history of breast cancer in the family cancer clinic. Eur J Surg Oncol 24 (4): 275-9, 1998.
  69. Schwartz MD, Peshkin BN, Hughes C, et al.: Impact of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation testing on psychologic distress in a clinic-based sample. J Clin Oncol 20 (2): 514-20, 2002.
  70. Mancini J, Noguès C, Adenis C, et al.: Impact of an information booklet on satisfaction and decision-making about BRCA genetic testing. Eur J Cancer 42 (7): 871-81, 2006.
  71. Green MJ, Biesecker BB, McInerney AM, et al.: An interactive computer program can effectively educate patients about genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. Am J Med Genet 103 (1): 16-23, 2001.
  72. Green MJ, Peterson SK, Baker MW, et al.: Effect of a computer-based decision aid on knowledge, perceptions, and intentions about genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292 (4): 442-52, 2004.
  73. Green MJ, McInerney AM, Biesecker BB, et al.: Education about genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility: patient preferences for a computer program or genetic counselor. Am J Med Genet 103 (1): 24-31, 2001.
  74. Dabney MK, Huelsman K: Counseling by computer: breast cancer risk and genetic testing. Developed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Medicine and the Program in Medical Ethics. Genet Test 4 (1): 43-4, 2000.
  75. Green MJ, Peterson SK, Baker MW, et al.: Use of an educational computer program before genetic counseling for breast cancer susceptibility: effects on duration and content of counseling sessions. Genet Med 7 (4): 221-9, 2005.
  76. Baty BJ, Kinney AY, Ellis SM: Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans. Am J Med Genet 118A (2): 146-55, 2003.
  77. Permuth-Wey J, Vadaparampil S, Rumphs A, et al.: Development of a culturally tailored genetic counseling booklet about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer for Black women. Am J Med Genet A 152A (4): 836-45, 2010.
  78. Pal T, Stowe C, Cole A, et al.: Evaluation of phone-based genetic counselling in African American women using culturally tailored visual aids. Clin Genet 78 (2): 124-31, 2010.
  79. Calzone KA: Predisposition testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. Semin Oncol Nurs 13 (2): 82-90, 1997.
  80. Smith KR, West JA, Croyle RT, et al.: Familial context of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: moderating effect of siblings' test results on psychological distress one to two weeks after BRCA1 mutation testing. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8 (4 Pt 2): 385-92, 1999.
  81. Wylie JE, Smith KR, Botkin JR: Effects of spouses on distress experienced by BRCA1 mutation carriers over time. Am J Med Genet 119C (1): 35-44, 2003.
  82. Kelly PT: Understanding Breast Cancer Risk. Philadelphia, Pa: Temple University Press, 1991.
  83. Hubbard R, Lewontin RC: Pitfalls of genetic testing. N Engl J Med 334 (18): 1192-4, 1996.
  84. Richards MP, Hallowell N, Green JM, et al.: Counseling families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: a psychosocial perspective. J Genet Couns 4(3): 219-233, 1995.
  85. Hoskins KF, Stopfer JE, Calzone KA, et al.: Assessment and counseling for women with a family history of breast cancer. A guide for clinicians. JAMA 273 (7): 577-85, 1995.
  86. Schneider KA: Genetic counseling for BRCA1/BRCA2 testing. Genet Test 1 (2): 91-8, 1997.
  87. McKinnon WC, Baty BJ, Bennett RL, et al.: Predisposition genetic testing for late-onset disorders in adults. A position paper of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. JAMA 278 (15): 1217-20, 1997.
  88. Cummings S, Olopade O: Predisposition testing for inherited breast cancer. Oncology (Huntingt) 12 (8): 1227-41; discussion 1241-2, 1998.
  89. Lipkus IM, Klein WM, Rimer BK: Communicating breast cancer risks to women using different formats. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10 (8): 895-8, 2001.
  90. Butow PN, Lobb EA: Analyzing the process and content of genetic counseling in familial breast cancer consultations. J Genet Couns 13 (5): 403-24, 2004.
  91. Lerman C, Audrain J, Croyle RT: DNA-testing for heritable breast cancer risks: lessons from traditional genetic counseling. Ann Behav Med 16(4): 327-333, 1994.
  92. Pieterse AH, van Dulmen AM, Beemer FA, et al.: Cancer genetic counseling: communication and counselees' post-visit satisfaction, cognitions, anxiety, and needs fulfillment. J Genet Couns 16 (1): 85-96, 2007.
  93. Struewing JP, Hartge P, Wacholder S, et al.: The risk of cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Ashkenazi Jews. N Engl J Med 336 (20): 1401-8, 1997.
  94. Lerman C, Narod S, Schulman K, et al.: BRCA1 testing in families with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer. A prospective study of patient decision making and outcomes. JAMA 275 (24): 1885-92, 1996.
  95. Croyle RT, Smith KR, Botkin JR, et al.: Psychological responses to BRCA1 mutation testing: preliminary findings. Health Psychol 16 (1): 63-72, 1997.
  96. Reichelt JG, Heimdal K, Møller P, et al.: BRCA1 testing with definitive results: a prospective study of psychological distress in a large clinic-based sample. Fam Cancer 3 (1): 21-8, 2004.
  97. Reichelt JG, Møller P, Heimdal K, et al.: Psychological and cancer-specific distress at 18 months post-testing in women with demonstrated BRCA1 mutations for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Fam Cancer 7 (3): 245-54, 2008.
  98. Broadstock M, Michie S, Marteau T: Psychological consequences of predictive genetic testing: a systematic review. Eur J Hum Genet 8 (10): 731-8, 2000.
  99. Watson M, Foster C, Eeles R, et al.: Psychosocial impact of breast/ovarian (BRCA1/2) cancer-predictive genetic testing in a UK multi-centre clinical cohort. Br J Cancer 91 (10): 1787-94, 2004.
  100. Foster C, Watson M, Eeles R, et al.: Predictive genetic testing for BRCA1/2 in a UK clinical cohort: three-year follow-up. Br J Cancer 96 (5): 718-24, 2007.
  101. Claes E, Evers-Kiebooms G, Denayer L, et al.: Predictive genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: psychological distress and illness representations 1 year following disclosure. J Genet Couns 14 (5): 349-63, 2005.
  102. van Oostrom I, Meijers-Heijboer H, Lodder LN, et al.: Long-term psychological impact of carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation and prophylactic surgery: a 5-year follow-up study. J Clin Oncol 21 (20): 3867-74, 2003.
  103. Horowitz M, Wilner N, Alvarez W: Impact of Event Scale: a measure of subjective stress. Psychosom Med 41 (3): 209-18, 1979.
  104. DudokdeWit AC, Tibben A, Duivenvoorden HJ, et al.: Predicting adaptation to presymptomatic DNA testing for late onset disorders: who will experience distress? Rotterdam Leiden Genetics Workgroup. J Med Genet 35 (9): 745-54, 1998.
  105. Halbert CH, Stopfer JE, McDonald J, et al.: Long-term reactions to genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations: does time heal women's concerns? J Clin Oncol 29 (32): 4302-6, 2011.
  106. Graves KD, Vegella P, Poggi EA, et al.: Long-term psychosocial outcomes of BRCA1/BRCA2 testing: differences across affected status and risk-reducing surgery choice. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21 (3): 445-55, 2012.
  107. Cella D, Hughes C, Peterman A, et al.: A brief assessment of concerns associated with genetic testing for cancer: the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) questionnaire. Health Psychol 21 (6): 564-72, 2002.
  108. Andrews L, Meiser B, Apicella C, et al.: Psychological impact of genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in women of Ashkenazi Jewish background: a prospective study. Genet Test 8 (3): 240-7, 2004.
  109. Wood ME, Mullineaux L, Rahm AK, et al.: Impact of BRCA1 testing on women with cancer: a pilot study. Genet Test 4 (3): 265-72, 2000.
  110. Coyne JC, Kruus L, Racioppo M, et al.: What do ratings of cancer-specific distress mean among women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer? Am J Med Genet 116A (3): 222-8, 2003.
  111. DudokdeWit AC, Tibben A, Frets PG, et al.: BRCA1 in the family: a case description of the psychological implications. Am J Med Genet 71 (1): 63-71, 1997.
  112. Macke E: A family history of breast and ovarian cancer. In: Marteau T, Richards M, eds.: The Troubled Helix: Social and Psychological Implications of the New Human Genetics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp 31-37.
  113. Bonadona V, Saltel P, Desseigne F, et al.: Cancer patients who experienced diagnostic genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: reactions and behavior after the disclosure of a positive test result. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11 (1): 97-104, 2002.
  114. Bish A, Sutton S, Jacobs C, et al.: Changes in psychological distress after cancer genetic counselling: a comparison of affected and unaffected women. Br J Cancer 86 (1): 43-50, 2002 Jan 7.
  115. Dorval M, Patenaude AF, Schneider KA, et al.: Anticipated versus actual emotional reactions to disclosure of results of genetic tests for cancer susceptibility: findings from p53 and BRCA1 testing programs. J Clin Oncol 18 (10): 2135-42, 2000.
  116. Hallowell N, Foster C, Ardern-Jones A, et al.: Genetic testing for women previously diagnosed with breast/ovarian cancer: examining the impact of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation searching. Genet Test 6 (2): 79-87, 2002 Summer.
  117. O'Neill SC, Rini C, Goldsmith RE, et al.: Distress among women receiving uninformative BRCA1/2 results: 12-month outcomes. Psychooncology 18 (10): 1088-96, 2009.
  118. Rini C, O'Neill SC, Valdimarsdottir H, et al.: Cognitive and emotional factors predicting decisional conflict among high-risk breast cancer survivors who receive uninformative BRCA1/2 results. Health Psychol 28 (5): 569-78, 2009.
  119. Brain K, Norman P, Gray J, et al.: A randomized trial of specialist genetic assessment: psychological impact on women at different levels of familial breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer 86 (2): 233-8, 2002.
  120. Fry A, Cull A, Appleton S, et al.: A randomised controlled trial of breast cancer genetics services in South East Scotland: psychological impact. Br J Cancer 89 (4): 653-9, 2003.
  121. Bernhardt BA, Geller G, Doksum T, et al.: Evaluation of nurses and genetic counselors as providers of education about breast cancer susceptibility testing. Oncol Nurs Forum 27 (1): 33-9, 2000 Jan-Feb.
  122. Hallowell N, Statham H, Murton F, et al.: "Talking about chance": the presentation of risk information during genetic counseling for breast and ovarian cancer. J Genet Couns 6(3): 269-286, 1997.
  123. Audrain J, Rimer B, Cella D, et al.: Genetic counseling and testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility: what do women want? J Clin Oncol 16 (1): 133-8, 1998.
  124. Watson M, Duvivier V, Wade Walsh M, et al.: Family history of breast cancer: what do women understand and recall about their genetic risk? J Med Genet 35 (9): 731-8, 1998.
  125. Wakefield CE, Meiser B, Homewood J, et al.: A randomized controlled trial of a decision aid for women considering genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 107 (2): 289-301, 2008.
  126. Lerman C, Peshkin BN, Hughes C, et al.: Family disclosure in genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: determinants and consequences. Journal of Health Care Law and Policy 1(2): 353-373, 1998.
  127. Kenen R, Arden-Jones A, Eeles R: Healthy women from suspected hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families: the significant others in their lives. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 13 (2): 169-79, 2004.
  128. Finlay E, Stopfer JE, Burlingame E, et al.: Factors determining dissemination of results and uptake of genetic testing in families with known BRCA1/2 mutations. Genet Test 12 (1): 81-91, 2008.
  129. Hughes C, Lerman C, Schwartz M, et al.: All in the family: evaluation of the process and content of sisters' communication about BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic test results. Am J Med Genet 107 (2): 143-50, 2002.
  130. Wagner Costalas J, Itzen M, Malick J, et al.: Communication of BRCA1 and BRCA2 results to at-risk relatives: a cancer risk assessment program's experience. Am J Med Genet 119C (1): 11-8, 2003.
  131. Patenaude AF, Dorval M, DiGianni LS, et al.: Sharing BRCA1/2 test results with first-degree relatives: factors predicting who women tell. J Clin Oncol 24 (4): 700-6, 2006.
  132. MacDonald DJ, Sarna L, van Servellen G, et al.: Selection of family members for communication of cancer risk and barriers to this communication before and after genetic cancer risk assessment. Genet Med 9 (5): 275-82, 2007.
  133. Claes E, Evers-Kiebooms G, Boogaerts A, et al.: Communication with close and distant relatives in the context of genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in cancer patients. Am J Med Genet 116A (1): 11-9, 2003.
  134. Foster C, Eeles R, Ardern-Jones A, et al.: Juggling roles and expectations: dilemmas faced by women talking to relatives about cancer and genetic testing. Psychol Health 19 (4): 439-55, 2004.
  135. Kenen R, Arden-Jones A, Eeles R: We are talking, but are they listening? Communication patterns in families with a history of breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC). Psychooncology 13 (5): 335-45, 2004.
  136. Segal J, Esplen MJ, Toner B, et al.: An investigation of the disclosure process and support needs of BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Am J Med Genet A 125 (3): 267-72, 2004.
  137. Bradbury AR, Dignam JJ, Ibe CN, et al.: How often do BRCA mutation carriers tell their young children of the family's risk for cancer? A study of parental disclosure of BRCA mutations to minors and young adults. J Clin Oncol 25 (24): 3705-11, 2007.
  138. Bradbury AR, Patrick-Miller L, Pawlowski K, et al.: Learning of your parent's BRCA mutation during adolescence or early adulthood: a study of offspring experiences. Psychooncology 18 (2): 200-8, 2009.
  139. Manne S, Audrain J, Schwartz M, et al.: Associations between relationship support and psychological reactions of participants and partners to BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing in a clinic-based sample. Ann Behav Med 28 (3): 211-25, 2004.
  140. McAllister MF, Evans DG, Ormiston W, et al.: Men in breast cancer families: a preliminary qualitative study of awareness and experience. J Med Genet 35 (9): 739-44, 1998.
  141. Liede A, Metcalfe K, Hanna D, et al.: Evaluation of the needs of male carriers of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 who have undergone genetic counseling. Am J Hum Genet 67 (6): 1494-504, 2000.
  142. Metcalfe KA, Liede A, Trinkaus M, et al.: Evaluation of the needs of spouses of female carriers of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Clin Genet 62 (6): 464-9, 2002.
  143. Mireskandari S, Sherman KA, Meiser B, et al.: Psychological adjustment among partners of women at high risk of developing breast/ovarian cancer. Genet Med 9 (5): 311-20, 2007.
  144. Sherman KA, Kasparian NA, Mireskandari S: Psychological adjustment among male partners in response to women's breast/ovarian cancer risk: a theoretical review of the literature. Psychooncology 19 (1): 1-11, 2010.
  145. Daly MB: The impact of social roles on the experience of men in BRCA1/2 families: implications for counseling. J Genet Couns 18 (1): 42-8, 2009.
  146. DudokdeWit AC, Tibben A, Frets PG, et al.: Males at-risk for the BRCA1 gene, the psychological impact. Psychooncology 5(3): 251-257, 1996.
  147. Lodder L, Frets PG, Trijsburg RW, et al.: Men at risk of being a mutation carrier for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer: an exploration of attitudes and psychological functioning during genetic testing. Eur J Hum Genet 9 (7): 492-500, 2001.
  148. Lerman C, Hughes C, Croyle RT, et al.: Prophylactic surgery decisions and surveillance practices one year following BRCA1/2 testing. Prev Med 31 (1): 75-80, 2000.
  149. Hughes C, Lynch H, Durham C, et al.: Communication of BRCA1/2 Test Results in Hereditary Breast Cancer Families. Cancer Research in Therapy and Control Vol. 8, 1999, pp. 51-59.
  150. Tercyak KP, Hughes C, Main D, et al.: Parental communication of BRCA1/2 genetic test results to children. Patient Educ Couns 42 (3): 213-24, 2001.
  151. Tercyak KP, Peshkin BN, DeMarco TA, et al.: Parent-child factors and their effect on communicating BRCA1/2 test results to children. Patient Educ Couns 47 (2): 145-53, 2002.
  152. McGivern B, Everett J, Yager GG, et al.: Family communication about positive BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic test results. Genet Med 6 (6): 503-9, 2004 Nov-Dec.
  153. Tercyak KP, Peshkin BN, Demarco TA, et al.: Information needs of mothers regarding communicating BRCA1/2 cancer genetic test results to their children. Genet Test 11 (3): 249-55, 2007.
  154. Patenaude AF: Cancer susceptibility testing: risks, benefits, and personal beliefs. In: Clarke A, ed.: The Genetic Testing of Children. Oxford, England: BIOS Scientific, 1998, pp 145-156.
  155. Richards M: The genetic testing of children: adult attitude's and children's understanding. In: Clarke A, ed.: The Genetic Testing of Children. Oxford, England: BIOS Scientific, 1998, pp 169-179.
  156. Wertz DC, Fanos JH, Reilly PR: Genetic testing for children and adolescents. Who decides? JAMA 272 (11): 875-81, 1994.
  157. Borry P, Stultiëns L, Nys H, et al.: Attitudes towards predictive genetic testing in minors for familial breast cancer: a systematic review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 64 (3): 173-81, 2007.
  158. Wertz DC: International perspectives. In: Clarke A, ed.: The Genetic Testing of Children. Oxford, England: BIOS Scientific, 1998, pp 271-287.
  159. Benkendorf JL, Reutenauer JE, Hughes CA, et al.: Patients' attitudes about autonomy and confidentiality in genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility. Am J Med Genet 73 (3): 296-303, 1997.
  160. Points to consider: ethical, legal, and psychosocial implications of genetic testing in children and adolescents. American Society of Human Genetics Board of Directors, American College of Medical Genetics Board of Directors. Am J Hum Genet 57 (5): 1233-41, 1995.
  161. Michie S, Marteau TM: Predictive genetic testing in children: the need for psychological research. In: Clarke A, ed.: The Genetic Testing of Children. Oxford, England: BIOS Scientific, 1998, pp 169-182.
  162. MacDonald DJ, Lessick M: Hereditary cancers in children and ethical and psychosocial implications. J Pediatr Nurs 15 (4): 217-25, 2000.
  163. Tercyak KP, Peshkin BN, Streisand R, et al.: Psychological issues among children of hereditary breast cancer gene (BRCA1/2) testing participants. Psychooncology 10 (4): 336-46, 2001 Jul-Aug.
  164. Staton AD, Kurian AW, Cobb K, et al.: Cancer risk reduction and reproductive concerns in female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Fam Cancer 7 (2): 179-86, 2008.
  165. Friedman LC, Kramer RM: Reproductive issues for women with BRCA mutations. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr (34): 83-6, 2005.
  166. Smith KR, Ellington L, Chan AY, et al.: Fertility intentions following testing for a BRCA1 gene mutation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13 (5): 733-40, 2004.
  167. Quinn G, Vadaparampil S, Wilson C, et al.: Attitudes of high-risk women toward preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Fertil Steril 91 (6): 2361-8, 2009.
  168. Cunniff C; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Genetics.: Prenatal screening and diagnosis for pediatricians. Pediatrics 114 (3): 889-94, 2004.
  169. Rappaport VJ: Prenatal diagnosis and genetic screening--integration into prenatal care. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 35 (3): 435-58, ix, 2008.
  170. Baruch S, Kaufman D, Hudson KL: Genetic testing of embryos: practices and perspectives of US in vitro fertilization clinics. Fertil Steril 89 (5): 1053-8, 2008.
  171. Ogilvie CM, Braude PR, Scriven PN: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis--an overview. J Histochem Cytochem 53 (3): 255-60, 2005.
  172. Vadaparampil ST, Quinn GP, Knapp C, et al.: Factors associated with preimplantation genetic diagnosis acceptance among women concerned about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Genet Med 11 (10): 757-65, 2009.
  173. Quinn GP, Vadaparampil ST, King LM, et al.: Conflict between values and technology: perceptions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis among women at increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Fam Cancer 8 (4): 441-9, 2009.
  174. Menon U, Harper J, Sharma A, et al.: Views of BRCA gene mutation carriers on preimplantation genetic diagnosis as a reproductive option for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Hum Reprod 22 (6): 1573-7, 2007.
  175. Fortuny D, Balmaña J, Graña B, et al.: Opinion about reproductive decision making among individuals undergoing BRCA1/2 genetic testing in a multicentre Spanish cohort. Hum Reprod 24 (4): 1000-6, 2009.
  176. Julian-Reynier C, Fabre R, Coupier I, et al.: BRCA1/2 carriers: their childbearing plans and theoretical intentions about having preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis. Genet Med 14 (5): 527-34, 2012.
  177. Ormondroyd E, Donnelly L, Moynihan C, et al.: Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis. Eur J Hum Genet 20 (1): 4-10, 2012.
  178. Quinn GP, Vadaparampil ST, Miree CA, et al.: High risk men's perceptions of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Hum Reprod 25 (10): 2543-50, 2010.
  179. Struewing JP, Abeliovich D, Peretz T, et al.: The carrier frequency of the BRCA1 185delAG mutation is approximately 1 percent in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals. Nat Genet 11 (2): 198-200, 1995.
  180. Rothenberg KH: Breast cancer, the genetic "quick fix," and the Jewish community. Ethical, legal, and social challenges. Health Matrix Clevel 7 (1): 97-124, 1997 Winter.
  181. Foster MW, Bernsten D, Carter TH: A model agreement for genetic research in socially identifiable populations. Am J Hum Genet 63 (3): 696-702, 1998.
  182. Burhansstipanov L, Bemis LT, Dignan MB: Native American cancer education: genetic and cultural issues. J Cancer Educ 16 (3): 142-5, 2001 Autumn.
  183. Hughes C, Fasaye GA, LaSalle VH, et al.: Sociocultural influences on participation in genetic risk assessment and testing among African American women. Patient Educ Couns 51 (2): 107-14, 2003.
  184. Julian-Reynier CM, Bouchard LJ, Evans DG, et al.: Women's attitudes toward preventive strategies for hereditary breast or ovarian carcinoma differ from one country to another: differences among English, French, and Canadian women. Cancer 92 (4): 959-68, 2001.
  185. Phillips KA, Warner E, Meschino WS, et al.: Perceptions of Ashkenazi Jewish breast cancer patients on genetic testing for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Clin Genet 57 (5): 376-83, 2000.
  186. Vadaparampil ST, Quinn GP, Small BJ, et al.: A pilot study of hereditary breast and ovarian knowledge among a multiethnic group of Hispanic women with a personal or family history of cancer. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 14 (1): 99-106, 2010.
  187. Halbert CH, Kessler L, Troxel AB, et al.: Effect of genetic counseling and testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in African American women: a randomized trial. Public Health Genomics 13 (7-8): 440-8, 2010.
  188. Freedman TG: Genetic susceptibility testing: ethical and social quandaries. Health Soc Work 23 (3): 214-22, 1998.
  189. Parens E: Glad and terrified: on the ethics of BRACA1 and 2 testing. Cancer Invest 14 (4): 405-11, 1996.
  190. Winter PR, Wiesner GL, Finnegan J, et al.: Notification of a family history of breast cancer: issues of privacy and confidentiality. Am J Med Genet 66 (1): 1-6, 1996.
  191. Robson ME, Storm CD, Weitzel J, et al.: American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: genetic and genomic testing for cancer susceptibility. J Clin Oncol 28 (5): 893-901, 2010.
  192. Burke W, Daly M, Garber J, et al.: Recommendations for follow-up care of individuals with an inherited predisposition to cancer. II. BRCA1 and BRCA2. Cancer Genetics Studies Consortium. JAMA 277 (12): 997-1003, 1997.
  193. Statement of the American Society of Clinical Oncology: genetic testing for cancer susceptibility, Adopted on February 20, 1996. J Clin Oncol 14 (5): 1730-6; discussion 1737-40, 1996.
  194. Hallowell N, Foster C, Eeles R, et al.: Balancing autonomy and responsibility: the ethics of generating and disclosing genetic information. J Med Ethics 29 (2): 74-9; discussion 80-3, 2003.
  195. Metcalfe KA, Poll A, O'Connor A, et al.: Development and testing of a decision aid for breast cancer prevention for women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Clin Genet 72 (3): 208-17, 2007.
  196. Tiller K, Meiser B, Gaff C, et al.: A randomized controlled trial of a decision aid for women at increased risk of ovarian cancer. Med Decis Making 26 (4): 360-72, 2006 Jul-Aug.
  197. van Roosmalen MS, Stalmeier PF, Verhoef LC, et al.: Randomized trial of a shared decision-making intervention consisting of trade-offs and individualized treatment information for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol 22 (16): 3293-301, 2004.
  198. Culver JO, MacDonald DJ, Thornton AA, et al.: Development and evaluation of a decision aid for BRCA carriers with breast cancer. J Genet Couns 20 (3): 294-307, 2011.
  199. Schwartz MD, Lerman C, Brogan B, et al.: Impact of BRCA1/BRCA2 counseling and testing on newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 22 (10): 1823-9, 2004.
  200. Schwartz MD, Isaacs C, Graves KD, et al.: Long-term outcomes of BRCA1/BRCA2 testing: risk reduction and surveillance. Cancer 118 (2): 510-7, 2012.
  201. O'Neill SC, Valdimarsdottir HB, Demarco TA, et al.: BRCA1/2 test results impact risk management attitudes, intentions, and uptake. Breast Cancer Res Treat 124 (3): 755-64, 2010.
  202. Beattie MS, Crawford B, Lin F, et al.: Uptake, time course, and predictors of risk-reducing surgeries in BRCA carriers. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 13 (1): 51-6, 2009.
  203. Botkin JR, Smith KR, Croyle RT, et al.: Genetic testing for a BRCA1 mutation: prophylactic surgery and screening behavior in women 2 years post testing. Am J Med Genet A 118 (3): 201-9, 2003.
  204. Julian-Reynier C, Mancini J, Mouret-Fourme E, et al.: Cancer risk management strategies and perceptions of unaffected women 5 years after predictive genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations. Eur J Hum Genet 19 (5): 500-6, 2011.
  205. Phillips KA, Jenkins MA, Lindeman GJ, et al.: Risk-reducing surgery, screening and chemoprevention practices of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a prospective cohort study. Clin Genet 70 (3): 198-206, 2006.
  206. Metcalfe KA, Birenbaum-Carmeli D, Lubinski J, et al.: International variation in rates of uptake of preventive options in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Int J Cancer 122 (9): 2017-22, 2008.
  207. Scheuer L, Kauff N, Robson M, et al.: Outcome of preventive surgery and screening for breast and ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol 20 (5): 1260-8, 2002.
  208. Rhiem K, Foth D, Wappenschmidt B, et al.: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Arch Gynecol Obstet 283 (3): 623-7, 2011.
  209. Madalinska JB, van Beurden M, Bleiker EM, et al.: Predictors of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy compared with gynecologic screening use in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol 25 (3): 301-7, 2007.
  210. Friebel TM, Domchek SM, Neuhausen SL, et al.: Bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in a prospective cohort of unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Clin Breast Cancer 7 (11): 875-82, 2007.
  211. van Dijk S, van Roosmalen MS, Otten W, et al.: Decision making regarding prophylactic mastectomy: stability of preferences and the impact of anticipated feelings of regret. J Clin Oncol 26 (14): 2358-63, 2008.
  212. Claes E, Evers-Kiebooms G, Decruyenaere M, et al.: Surveillance behavior and prophylactic surgery after predictive testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Behav Med 31 (3): 93-105, 2005.
  213. Ray JA, Loescher LJ, Brewer M: Risk-reduction surgery decisions in high-risk women seen for genetic counseling. J Genet Couns 14 (6): 473-84, 2005.
  214. Hallowell N: 'You don't want to lose your ovaries because you think 'I might become a man". Women's perceptions of prophylactic surgery as a cancer risk management option. Psychooncology 7 (3): 263-75, 1998 May-Jun.
  215. Schneider KA, Stopfer JE, Peters JA, et al.: Complexities in cancer risk counseling: presentation of three cases. J Genet Couns 6(2): 147-168, 1997.
  216. Tarkan L: My Mother's Breast: Daughters Face Their Mothers' Cancer. Dallas, TX: Taylor Publishing, 1999.
  217. Stefanek ME, Helzlsouer KJ, Wilcox PM, et al.: Predictors of and satisfaction with bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. Prev Med 24 (4): 412-9, 1995.
  218. Graves KD, Peshkin BN, Halbert CH, et al.: Predictors and outcomes of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy among breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Res Treat 104 (3): 321-9, 2007.
  219. Howard-McNatt M, Schroll RW, Hurt GJ, et al.: Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in breast cancer patients who test negative for BRCA mutations. Am J Surg 202 (3): 298-302, 2011.
  220. Bresser PJ, Seynaeve C, Van Gool AR, et al.: Satisfaction with prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction in genetically predisposed women. Plast Reconstr Surg 117 (6): 1675-82; discussion 1683-4, 2006.
  221. Brandberg Y, Sandelin K, Erikson S, et al.: Psychological reactions, quality of life, and body image after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women at high risk for breast cancer: a prospective 1-year follow-up study. J Clin Oncol 26 (24): 3943-9, 2008.
  222. Lobb E, Meiser B: Genetic counselling and prophylactic surgery in women from families with hereditary breast or ovarian cancer. Lancet 363 (9424): 1841-2, 2004.
  223. Lobb EA, Butow PN, Meiser B, et al.: Tailoring communication in consultations with women from high risk breast cancer families. Br J Cancer 87 (5): 502-8, 2002.
  224. Lobb EA, Butow PN, Barratt A, et al.: Communication and information-giving in high-risk breast cancer consultations: influence on patient outcomes. Br J Cancer 90 (2): 321-7, 2004.
  225. Schwartz MD, Kaufman E, Peshkin BN, et al.: Bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy and ovarian cancer screening following BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation testing. J Clin Oncol 21 (21): 4034-41, 2003.
  226. Kauff ND, Satagopan JM, Robson ME, et al.: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med 346 (21): 1609-15, 2002.
  227. Meijers-Heijboer EJ, Verhoog LC, Brekelmans CT, et al.: Presymptomatic DNA testing and prophylactic surgery in families with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Lancet 355 (9220): 2015-20, 2000.
  228. Schmeler KM, Sun CC, Bodurka DC, et al.: Prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy compared with surveillance in women with BRCA mutations. Obstet Gynecol 108 (3 Pt 1): 515-20, 2006.
  229. MacDonald DJ, Sarna L, Uman GC, et al.: Cancer screening and risk-reducing behaviors of women seeking genetic cancer risk assessment for breast and ovarian cancers. Oncol Nurs Forum 33 (2): E27-35, 2006.
  230. Litton JK, Westin SN, Ready K, et al.: Perception of screening and risk reduction surgeries in patients tested for a BRCA deleterious mutation. Cancer 115 (8): 1598-604, 2009.
  231. Tyndel S, Austoker J, Henderson BJ, et al.: What is the psychological impact of mammographic screening on younger women with a family history of breast cancer? Findings from a prospective cohort study by the PIMMS Management Group. J Clin Oncol 25 (25): 3823-30, 2007.
  232. Rees G, Young MA, Gaff C, et al.: A qualitative study of health professionals' views regarding provision of information about health-protective behaviors during genetic consultation for breast cancer. J Genet Couns 15 (2): 95-104, 2006.
  233. Lodder LN, Frets PG, Trijsburg RW, et al.: One year follow-up of women opting for presymptomatic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2: emotional impact of the test outcome and decisions on risk management (surveillance or prophylactic surgery). Breast Cancer Res Treat 73 (2): 97-112, 2002.
  234. Bresser PJ, Seynaeve C, Van Gool AR, et al.: The course of distress in women at increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer due to an (identified) genetic susceptibility who opt for prophylactic mastectomy and/or salpingo-oophorectomy. Eur J Cancer 43 (1): 95-103, 2007.
  235. Frost MH, Schaid DJ, Sellers TA, et al.: Long-term satisfaction and psychological and social function following bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. JAMA 284 (3): 319-24, 2000.
  236. Metcalfe KA, Esplen MJ, Goel V, et al.: Psychosocial functioning in women who have undergone bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. Psychooncology 13 (1): 14-25, 2004.
  237. Weitzel JN, McCaffrey SM, Nedelcu R, et al.: Effect of genetic cancer risk assessment on surgical decisions at breast cancer diagnosis. Arch Surg 138 (12): 1323-8; discussion 1329, 2003.
  238. Schlich-Bakker KJ, Ausems MG, Schipper M, et al.: BRCA1/2 mutation testing in breast cancer patients: a prospective study of the long-term psychological impact of approach during adjuvant radiotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 109 (3): 507-14, 2008.
  239. Frost MH, Slezak JM, Tran NV, et al.: Satisfaction after contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: the significance of mastectomy type, reconstructive complications, and body appearance. J Clin Oncol 23 (31): 7849-56, 2005.
  240. Schwartz MD: Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: efficacy, satisfaction, and regret. J Clin Oncol 23 (31): 7777-9, 2005.
  241. Geiger AM, Nekhlyudov L, Herrinton LJ, et al.: Quality of life after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. Ann Surg Oncol 14 (2): 686-94, 2007.
  242. Isern AE, Tengrup I, Loman N, et al.: Aesthetic outcome, patient satisfaction, and health-related quality of life in women at high risk undergoing prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 61 (10): 1177-87, 2008.
  243. Kenen RH, Shapiro PJ, Hantsoo L, et al.: Women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations renegotiating a post-prophylactic mastectomy identity: self-image and self-disclosure. J Genet Couns 16 (6): 789-98, 2007.
  244. Altschuler A, Nekhlyudov L, Rolnick SJ, et al.: Positive, negative, and disparate--women's differing long-term psychosocial experiences of bilateral or contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Breast J 14 (1): 25-32, 2008 Jan-Feb.
  245. Patenaude AF, Orozco S, Li X, et al.: Support needs and acceptability of psychological and peer consultation: attitudes of 108 women who had undergone or were considering prophylactic mastectomy. Psychooncology 17 (8): 831-43, 2008.
  246. Elit L, Esplen MJ, Butler K, et al.: Quality of life and psychosexual adjustment after prophylactic oophorectomy for a family history of ovarian cancer. Fam Cancer 1 (3-4): 149-56, 2001.
  247. Robson M, Hensley M, Barakat R, et al.: Quality of life in women at risk for ovarian cancer who have undergone risk-reducing oophorectomy. Gynecol Oncol 89 (2): 281-7, 2003.
  248. Finch A, Metcalfe KA, Chiang JK, et al.: The impact of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy on menopausal symptoms and sexual function in women who carry a BRCA mutation. Gynecol Oncol 121 (1): 163-8, 2011.
  249. Finch A, Metcalfe K, Lui J, et al.: Breast and ovarian cancer risk perception after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy due to an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. Clin Genet 75 (3): 220-4, 2009.
  250. Madalinska JB, Hollenstein J, Bleiker E, et al.: Quality-of-life effects of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy versus gynecologic screening among women at increased risk of hereditary ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 23 (28): 6890-8, 2005.
  251. Westin SN, Sun CC, Lu KH, et al.: Satisfaction with ovarian carcinoma risk-reduction strategies among women at high risk for breast and ovarian carcinoma. Cancer 117 (12): 2659-67, 2011.
  252. Campfield Bonadies D, Moyer A, Matloff ET: What I wish I'd known before surgery: BRCA carriers' perspectives after bilateral salipingo-oophorectomy. Fam Cancer 10 (1): 79-85, 2011.
  253. Massie MJ, Muskin PR, Stewart DE: Psychotherapy with a woman at high risk for developing breast cancer. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 20 (3): 189-97, 1998.
  254. Shoda Y, Mischel W, Miller SM, et al.: Psychological interventions and genetic testing: facilitating informed decisions about BRCA1/2 cancer susceptibility. J Clin Psychol Med Settings 5(1): 3-17, 1998.
  255. Halbert CH, Wenzel L, Lerman C, et al.: Predictors of participation in psychosocial telephone counseling following genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13 (5): 875-81, 2004.
  256. Karp J, Brown KL, Sullivan MD, et al.: The prophylactic mastectomy dilemma: a support group for women at high genetic risk for breast cancer. J Genet Counsel 8 (3): 163-73, 1999.
  257. Landsbergen KM, Prins JB, Kamm YJ, et al.: Female BRCA mutation carriers with a preference for prophylactic mastectomy are more likely to participate an educational-support group and to proceed with the preferred intervention within 2 years. Fam Cancer 9 (2): 213-20, 2010.
  258. Miller SM, Fleisher L, Roussi P, et al.: Facilitating informed decision making about breast cancer risk and genetic counseling among women calling the NCI's Cancer Information Service. J Health Commun 10 (Suppl 1): 119-36, 2005.
  259. Isaacs C, Peshkin BN, Schwartz M, et al.: Breast and ovarian cancer screening practices in healthy women with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 71 (2): 103-12, 2002.
  260. Peshkin BN, Schwartz MD, Isaacs C, et al.: Utilization of breast cancer screening in a clinically based sample of women after BRCA1/2 testing. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11 (10 Pt 1): 1115-8, 2002.
  261. Tinley ST, Houfek J, Watson P, et al.: Screening adherence in BRCA1/2 families is associated with primary physicians' behavior. Am J Med Genet A 125 (1): 5-11, 2004.
  262. Lerman C, Seay J, Balshem A, et al.: Interest in genetic testing among first-degree relatives of breast cancer patients. Am J Med Genet 57 (3): 385-92, 1995.
  263. Watson M, Kash KM, Homewood J, et al.: Does genetic counseling have any impact on management of breast cancer risk? Genet Test 9 (2): 167-74, 2005.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Breast Cancer Overview
From self-exams and biopsies to reconstruction, we’ve got you covered.
Dealing with breast cancer
Get answers to your questions.
woman having mammogram
Experts don’t agree on all fronts, but you can be your own advocate.
woman undergoing breast cancer test
Many women worry. But the truth? Most abnormalities aren’t breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Treatments Improving
Resolved To Quit Smoking
Woman getting mammogram
Screening Tests for Women
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
serious woman
what is your cancer risk
10 Ways to Revitalize Slideshow