Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Distal Urethral Cancer
Female Distal Urethral CancerIf the malignancy is at or just within the meatus and superficial parameters (stage 0/Tis, Ta), open excision or electroresection and fulguration may be possible. Tumor destruction using Nd:YAG or CO2 laser vaporization-coagulation represents an alternative option. For large lesions and more invasive lesions (stage A and stage B, T1 and T2, respectively), brachytherapy or a combination of brachytherapy and external-beam radiation therapy are alternatives to surgical resection of the distal third of the urethra. Patients with T3 distal urethral lesions, or lesions that recur after treatment with local excision or radiation therapy, require anterior exenteration and urinary diversion. If inguinal nodes are palpable, frozen section confirmation of tumor should be obtained. If positive for malignancy, ipsilateral node dissection is indicated. If no inguinal adenopathy exists, node dissection is not generally performed, and the nodes are followed clinically.
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 23 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with bladder cancer. Different types of treatment are available for patients with bladder cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Four types of standard treatment are used:Surgery One of the following types of surgery may be done: Transurethral resection (TUR) with fulguration: Surgery in which a cystoscope (a thin lighted tube) is inserted into the bladder through the urethra. A tool with a small wire loop on the end is then used
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages of Bladder Cancer
After bladder cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the bladder or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the bladder lining and muscle or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process: CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to
Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Bladder Cancer Treatment
The prognosis for any patient with progressive or recurrent invasive bladder cancer is generally poor. Management of recurrence depends on previous therapy, sites of recurrence, and individual patient considerations. Treatment of new superficial or locally invasive tumors that develop in the setting of previous conservative therapy for superficial bladder neoplasia has been discussed earlier in this summary.Recurrent or progressive disease in distant sites or after definitive local therapy has an extremely poor prognosis, and clinical trials should be considered whenever possible. Patients who have not received previous chemotherapy for urothelial carcinoma should be considered for chemotherapy as described above for stage IV disease. Palliative radiation therapy should be considered for patients with symptomatic tumors.Standard Treatment Options for Recurrent Bladder CancerStandard treatment options for patients with recurrent bladder cancer include the following:Combination
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062925-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Urethral Cancer Treatment
Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Bladder Cancer
Nonmuscle-invasive Bladder CancerTreatment of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancers (Ta, Tis, T1) is based on risk stratification. Essentially all patients are initially treated with a transurethral resection (TUR) of the bladder tumor followed by a single immediate instillation of intravesical chemotherapy (mitomycin C is typically used in the United States).[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]Subsequent therapy after the treatment above is based on risk and typically consists of one of the following:[6,7,8,9]Surveillance for relapse or recurrence (typically used for tumors with low risk of recurrence or progression).A minimum of 1 year of intravesical treatments with bascillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) plus surveillance for relapse (typically used for tumors at intermediate or high risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease).Additional intravesical chemotherapy (typically used for tumors with a high risk of recurrence but low risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease).Muscle-invasive
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Bladder Cancer
Treatment of recurrent bladder cancer depends on previous treatment and where the cancer has recurred. Treatment for recurrent bladder cancer may include the following: Surgery.Chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.A clinical trial of chemotherapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent bladder cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of bladder cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in