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    Bladder Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Bladder Cancer

    1. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent or Metastatic Urethral Cancer

      Local recurrences of urethral cancer may be amenable to local modality therapy with radiation or surgery, with or without chemotherapy. (Refer to the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more information.) Metastatic disease may be treated with regimens in common use for other urothelial transitional cell or squamous cell carcinomas, or anal carcinomas, depending upon the histology.[1,2,3]Treatment options:Locally recurrent urethral cancer after radiation therapy should be treated by surgical excision, if feasible.Locally recurrent urethral cancer after surgery alone should be considered for combination radiation and wider surgical resection.Metastatic urethral cancer should be considered for clinical trials using chemotherapy. Transitional cell cancer of the urethra may respond favorably to the same chemotherapy regimens employed for advanced transitional cell cancer of the bladder.[2,3,4,5]The level of evidence for these treatment options is 3iiiDiv.Current Clinical

    2. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062875-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening

    3. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Bladder Cancer

      Recurrent bladder cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the bladder or in other parts of the body.

    4. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of bladder cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    5. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    6. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 21 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.

    7. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages II and III Bladder Cancer Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Stages II and III Bladder CancerStandard treatment options for stage II bladder cancer and stage III bladder cancer include the following:Radical cystectomy.Neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy.External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy.Segmental cystectomy (in selected patients).Transurethral resection (TUR) with fulguration (in selected patients).The most common treatments for muscle-invasive bladder cancer are radical cystectomy and radiation therapy. There is no strong evidence from randomized controlled trials to determine whether surgery or radiation therapy is more effective. There is strong evidence that both therapies become more effective when combined with chemotherapy. At the present time, the treatments with the highest level of evidence supporting their effectiveness are radical cystectomy preceded by multiagent cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    8. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Urethral Cancer

      Incidence and MortalityUrethral cancer is rare. The annual incidence rates in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database over the period from 1973 to 2002 in the United States for men and for women were 4.3 and 1.5 per million, respectively, with downward trends over the three decades.[1] The incidence was twice as high in African Americans as in whites (5 million vs. 2.5 per million). Urethral cancers appear to be associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, a strain of HPV known to be causative for cervical cancer.[2,3]Because of its rarity, nearly all information about the treatment of urethral cancer and the outcomes of therapy is derived from retrospective, single-center case series and, therefore, represents a very low level of evidence of 3iiiDiv. The majority of information comes from cases accumulated over many decades at major academic centers.AnatomyThe female urethra is largely contained within the anterior vaginal wall. In

    9. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 23 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.This summary was comprehensively reviewed and reformatted.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    10. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

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