Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (03 / 06 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Description of EvidenceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Added Howlader et al. as reference 2.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Bladder Cancer
The prognosis for any patient with progressive or recurrent invasive bladder cancer is generally poor. Management of recurrence depends on prior therapy,sites of recurrence,and individual patient considerations. Treatment of new superficial or locally invasive tumors that develop in the setting of previous conservative therapy for superficial bladder neoplasia has been discussed earlier in ...
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
Information about the treatment of urethral cancer and the outcomes of therapy is derived from retrospective, single-center case series and represents a very low level of evidence of 3iiiDiv. The majority of this information comes from the small numbers of cases accumulated over many decades at major academic centers. Therefore, the treatment in these reports is usually not standardized and the treatment also spans eras of shifting supportive care practices. Because of the rarity of urethral cancer, its treatment may also reflect extrapolation from the management of other urothelial malignancies, such as bladder cancer in the case of transitional cancers, and anal cancer in the case of squamous cell carcinomas. Role of SurgerySurgery is the mainstay of therapy for urethral cancers in both women and men.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] The surgical approach depends on tumor stage and anatomic location, and tumor grade plays a less important role in treatment decisions.[1,2] Although the
Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Bladder Cancer
Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.) Stage IV bladder cancer is defined by the following TNM classifications: T4b,...
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Proximal Urethral Cancer
Female Proximal Urethral CancerLesions of the proximal or entire length of the urethra are usually associated with invasion and a high incidence of pelvic nodal metastases. The prospects for cure are limited except in the case of small tumors. The best results have been achieved with exenterative surgery and urinary diversion with 5-year survival rates ranging from 10% to 20%. To increase the resectability rate of gross tumor and decrease local recurrence, in an effort to shrink tumor margins, it is reasonable to recommend adjunctive, preoperative, radiation therapy. Pelvic lymphadenectomy is performed concomitantly. Ipsilateral inguinal node dissection is indicated only if biopsy specimens of ipsilateral palpable adenopathy are positive on frozen section. For tumors that do not exceed 2 cm in greatest dimension, radiation alone, nonexenterative surgery alone, or a combination of the two may be sufficient to provide an excellent outcome.It is reasonable to consider removal of part of
Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information on bladder cancer treatment.
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Urethral Cancer
Incidence and MortalityUrethral cancer is rare. The annual incidence rates in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database over the period from 1973 to 2002 in the United States for men and for women were 4.3 and 1.5 per million, respectively, with downward trends over the three decades. The incidence was twice as high in African Americans as in whites (5 million vs. 2.5 per million). Urethral cancers appear to be associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, a strain of HPV known to be causative for cervical cancer.[2,3]Because of its rarity, nearly all information about the treatment of urethral cancer and the outcomes of therapy is derived from retrospective, single-center case series and, therefore, represents a very low level of evidence of 3iiiDiv. The majority of information comes from cases accumulated over many decades at major academic centers.AnatomyThe female urethra is largely contained within the anterior vaginal wall. In
Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062908-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Bladder Cancer Treatment
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Urethral Cancer
Prognosis and treatment decisions are both determined by:The anatomical location of the primary tumor.The size of the tumor.The stage of the cancer.The depth of invasion of the tumor.The histology of the primary tumor is of less importance in estimating response to therapy and survival. Endoscopic examination, urethrography, and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in determining the local extent of the tumor.[3,4]Distal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often superficial. Female: Lesions of the distal third of the urethra.Male: Anterior, or penile, portion of the urethra, including the meatus and pendulous urethra.Proximal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often deeply invasive. Female: Lesions not clearly limited to the distal third of the urethra.Male: Bulbomembranous and prostatic urethra.Urethral Cancer Associated with Invasive Bladder CancerApproximately 5% to 10% of men with cystectomy for bladder cancer may have or may develop urethral cancer distal to the urogenital
Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence
Incidence and Mortality Bladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in the United States. It is estimated that 69,250 new cases of bladder cancer are expected to occur in the United States in 2011.[ 1 ] Bladder cancer is diagnosed almost twice as often in whites as in blacks of either sex. The incidence of bladder cancer among other ethnic and racial groups in the ...