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    Bladder Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Bladder Cancer

    1. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the screening of bladder and other urothelial cancers. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made

    2. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Bladder Cancer

      Recurrent bladder cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the bladder or in other parts of the body.

    3. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 23 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    4. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Bladder Cancer

      The clinical staging of carcinoma of the bladder is determined by the depth of invasion of the bladder wall by the tumor. This determination requires a cystoscopic examination that includes a biopsy and examination under anesthesia to assess the following:Size and mobility of palpable masses.Degree of induration of the bladder wall.Presence of extravesical extension or invasion of adjacent organs.Clinical staging, even when computed tomographic (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and other imaging modalities are used, often underestimates the extent of tumor, particularly in cancers that are less differentiated and more deeply invasive. CT imaging is the standard staging modality. A clinical benefit from obtaining MRI or positron emission tomography scans rather than CT imaging has not been demonstrated.[1,2]AJCC Stage Groupings and TNM DefinitionsThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has designated staging by TNM classification to define bladder

    5. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Bladder Cancer

      Related Summaries Note: Other PDQ summaries containing information related to bladder cancer include the following: Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening Unusual Cancers of Childhood Statistics Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from bladder cancer in the United States in 2010:[ 1 ] New cases: 70,530. Deaths: 14,680. Prognosis Approximately 70% to 80% of patients with newly diagnosed ...

    6. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Urethral Cancer

      In an analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data from 1973 to 2002, the most common histologic types of urethral cancer were:[1]Transitional cell (55%).Squamous cell (21.5%).Adenocarcinoma (16.4%).Other cell types, such as melanoma, were extremely rare.[1]The female urethra is lined by transitional cell mucosa proximally and stratified squamous cells distally. Therefore, transitional cell carcinoma is most common in the proximal urethra and squamous cell carcinoma predominates in the distal urethra. Adenocarcinoma may occur in both locations and arises from metaplasia of the numerous periurethral glands. The male urethra is lined by transitional cells in its prostatic and membranous portion and stratified columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium in the bulbous and penile portions. The submucosa of the urethra contains numerous glands. Therefore, urethral cancer in the male can manifest the histological characteristics of transitional cell carcinoma,

    7. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent or Metastatic Urethral Cancer

      Local recurrences of urethral cancer may be amenable to local modality therapy with radiation or surgery, with or without chemotherapy. (Refer to the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more information.) Metastatic disease may be treated with regimens in common use for other urothelial transitional cell or squamous cell carcinomas, or anal carcinomas, depending upon the histology.[1,2,3]Treatment options:Locally recurrent urethral cancer after radiation therapy should be treated by surgical excision, if feasible.Locally recurrent urethral cancer after surgery alone should be considered for combination radiation and wider surgical resection.Metastatic urethral cancer should be considered for clinical trials using chemotherapy. Transitional cell cancer of the urethra may respond favorably to the same chemotherapy regimens employed for advanced transitional cell cancer of the bladder.[2,3,4,5]The level of evidence for these treatment options is 3iiiDiv.Current Clinical

    8. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

      This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers screening.

    9. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      There are different types of treatment for patients with bladder cancer. Different types of treatment are available for patients with bladder cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Four types of standard treatment are used:Surgery One of the following types of surgery may be done: Transurethral resection (TUR) with fulguration: Surgery in which a cystoscope (a thin lighted tube) is inserted into the bladder through the urethra. A tool with a small wire loop on the end is then used

    10. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

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