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Bladder Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Bladder Cancer

  1. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Bladder Cancer

    Nonmuscle-invasive Bladder CancerTreatment of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancers (Ta, Tis, T1) is based on risk stratification. Essentially all patients are initially treated with a transurethral resection (TUR) of the bladder tumor followed by a single immediate instillation of intravesical chemotherapy (mitomycin C is typically used in the United States).[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]Subsequent therapy after the treatment above is based on risk and typically consists of one of the following:[6,7,8,9]Surveillance for relapse or recurrence (typically used for tumors with low risk of recurrence or progression).A minimum of 1 year of intravesical treatments with bascillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) plus surveillance for relapse (typically used for tumors at intermediate or high risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease).Additional intravesical chemotherapy (typically used for tumors with a high risk of recurrence but low risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease).Muscle-invasive

  2. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages II and III Bladder Cancer Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Stages II and III Bladder CancerStandard treatment options for stage II bladder cancer and stage III bladder cancer include the following:Radical cystectomy.Neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy.External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy.Segmental cystectomy (in selected patients).Transurethral resection (TUR) with fulguration (in selected patients).The most common treatments for muscle-invasive bladder cancer are radical cystectomy and radiation therapy. There is no strong evidence from randomized controlled trials to determine whether surgery or radiation therapy is more effective. There is strong evidence that both therapies become more effective when combined with chemotherapy. At the present time, the treatments with the highest level of evidence supporting their effectiveness are radical cystectomy preceded by multiagent cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy

  3. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

    Incidence and MortalityBladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in the United States. It is estimated that 72,570 new cases of bladder cancer are expected to occur in the United States in 2013.[1]Bladder cancer is diagnosed almost twice as often in whites as in blacks of either sex. The incidence of bladder cancer among other ethnic and racial groups in the United States falls between that of blacks and whites. The incidence of bladder cancer increases with age.[2]Since the 1950s, the incidence of bladder cancer has risen by approximately 50%. It is to be anticipated that, with the aging of the U.S. population, this trend will continue. There has been a decrease of approximately 33% in bladder cancer mortality during the same interval (National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, 1973–1997). It is estimated that 15,210 Americans will die of bladder cancer in 2013.[1]The age-adjusted mortality from

  4. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Bladder Cancer

    Related Summaries Note: Other PDQ summaries containing information related to bladder cancer include the following: Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening Unusual Cancers of Childhood Statistics Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from bladder cancer in the United States in 2010:[ 1 ] New cases: 70,530. Deaths: 14,680. Prognosis Approximately 70% to 80% of patients with newly diagnosed ...

  5. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  6. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  7. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Bladder Cancer

    Treatment of recurrent bladder cancer depends on previous treatment and where the cancer has recurred. Treatment for recurrent bladder cancer may include the following: Surgery.Chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.A clinical trial of chemotherapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent bladder cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

  8. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Proximal Urethral Cancer

    Female Proximal Urethral CancerLesions of the proximal or entire length of the urethra are usually associated with invasion and a high incidence of pelvic nodal metastases. The prospects for cure are limited except in the case of small tumors. The best results have been achieved with exenterative surgery and urinary diversion with 5-year survival rates ranging from 10% to 20%. To increase the resectability rate of gross tumor and decrease local recurrence, in an effort to shrink tumor margins, it is reasonable to recommend adjunctive, preoperative, radiation therapy. Pelvic lymphadenectomy is performed concomitantly. Ipsilateral inguinal node dissection is indicated only if biopsy specimens of ipsilateral palpable adenopathy are positive on frozen section. For tumors that do not exceed 2 cm in greatest dimension, radiation alone, nonexenterative surgery alone, or a combination of the two may be sufficient to provide an excellent outcome.It is reasonable to consider removal of part of

  9. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Bladder Cancer Treatment

    Currently, only a small fraction of patients with stage IV bladder cancer can be cured and for many patients, the emphasis is on palliation of symptoms. The potential for cure is restricted to patients with stage IV disease with involvement of pelvic organs by direct extension or metastases to regional lymph nodes.[1]Standard Treatment Options for Stage IV Bladder CancerStandard treatment options for patients with T4b, N0, M0 or any T, N1–N3, M0 diseaseTreatment options for patients with T4b, N0, M0 or any T, N1–N3, M0 disease include the following:Chemotherapy alone.Radical cystectomy.Radical cystectomy followed by chemotherapy.Radical cystectomy alone.External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy.Urinary diversion or cystectomy for palliation.Chemotherapy aloneCisplatin-based combination chemotherapy regimens are the standard of care for stage IV bladder cancer.[2,3,4,5,6] The only chemotherapy regimens that have been

  10. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Bladder Cancer

    After bladder cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the bladder or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the bladder lining and muscle or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process: CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to

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