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    Bladder Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Bladder Cancer

    1. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Bladder Cancer Treatment

      Currently, only a small fraction of patients with stage IV bladder cancer can be cured and for many patients, the emphasis is on palliation of symptoms. The potential for cure is restricted to patients with stage IV disease with involvement of pelvic organs by direct extension or metastases to regional lymph nodes.[1]Standard Treatment Options for Stage IV Bladder CancerStandard treatment options for patients with T4b, N0, M0 or any T, N1–N3, M0 diseaseTreatment options for patients with T4b, N0, M0 or any T, N1–N3, M0 disease include the following:Chemotherapy alone.Radical cystectomy.Radical cystectomy followed by chemotherapy.Radical cystectomy alone.External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy.Urinary diversion or cystectomy for palliation.Chemotherapy aloneCisplatin-based combination chemotherapy regimens are the standard of care for stage IV bladder cancer.[2,3,4,5,6] The only chemotherapy regimens that have been

    2. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Urethral Cancer

      Incidence and MortalityUrethral cancer is rare. The annual incidence rates in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database over the period from 1973 to 2002 in the United States for men and for women were 4.3 and 1.5 per million, respectively, with downward trends over the three decades.[1] The incidence was twice as high in African Americans as in whites (5 million vs. 2.5 per million). Urethral cancers appear to be associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, a strain of HPV known to be causative for cervical cancer.[2,3]Because of its rarity, nearly all information about the treatment of urethral cancer and the outcomes of therapy is derived from retrospective, single-center case series and, therefore, represents a very low level of evidence of 3iiiDiv. The majority of information comes from cases accumulated over many decades at major academic centers.AnatomyThe female urethra is largely contained within the anterior vaginal wall. In

    3. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      Information about the treatment of urethral cancer and the outcomes of therapy is derived from retrospective, single-center case series and represents a very low level of evidence of 3iiiDiv. The majority of this information comes from the small numbers of cases accumulated over many decades at major academic centers. Therefore, the treatment in these reports is usually not standardized and the treatment also spans eras of shifting supportive care practices. Because of the rarity of urethral cancer, its treatment may also reflect extrapolation from the management of other urothelial malignancies, such as bladder cancer in the case of transitional cancers, and anal cancer in the case of squamous cell carcinomas. Role of SurgerySurgery is the mainstay of therapy for urethral cancers in both women and men.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] The surgical approach depends on tumor stage and anatomic location, and tumor grade plays a less important role in treatment decisions.[1,2] Although the

    4. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of bladder cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    5. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 23 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    6. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Bladder Cancer

      More than 90% of bladder carcinomas are transitional cell carcinomas derived from the uroepithelium. About 2% to 7% are squamous cell carcinomas, and 2% are adenocarcinomas.[1] Adenocarcinomas may be of urachal origin or nonurachal origin; the latter type is generally thought to arise from metaplasia of chronically irritated transitional epithelium. Small cell carcinomas also may develop in the bladder.[2,3] Sarcomas of the bladder are very rare. Pathologic grade of transitional cell carcinomas, which is based on cellular atypia, nuclear abnormalities, and the number of mitotic figures, is of great prognostic importance.References: Al-Ahmadie H, Lin O, Reuter VE: Pathology and cytology of tumors of the urinary tract. In: Scardino PT, Linehan WM, Zelefsky MJ, et al., eds.: Comprehensive Textbook of Genitourinary Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 295-316. Koay EJ, Teh BS, Paulino AC, et al.: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results analysis

    7. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062908-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Bladder Cancer Treatment

    8. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    9. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent or Metastatic Urethral Cancer

      Local recurrences of urethral cancer may be amenable to local modality therapy with radiation or surgery, with or without chemotherapy. (Refer to the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more information.) Metastatic disease may be treated with regimens in common use for other urothelial transitional cell or squamous cell carcinomas, or anal carcinomas, depending upon the histology.[1,2,3]Treatment options:Locally recurrent urethral cancer after radiation therapy should be treated by surgical excision, if feasible.Locally recurrent urethral cancer after surgery alone should be considered for combination radiation and wider surgical resection.Metastatic urethral cancer should be considered for clinical trials using chemotherapy. Transitional cell cancer of the urethra may respond favorably to the same chemotherapy regimens employed for advanced transitional cell cancer of the bladder.[2,3,4,5]The level of evidence for these treatment options is 3iiiDiv.Current Clinical

    10. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

      Incidence and MortalityBladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in the United States. It is estimated that 72,570 new cases of bladder cancer are expected to occur in the United States in 2013.[1]Bladder cancer is diagnosed almost twice as often in whites as in blacks of either sex. The incidence of bladder cancer among other ethnic and racial groups in the United States falls between that of blacks and whites. The incidence of bladder cancer increases with age.[2]Since the 1950s, the incidence of bladder cancer has risen by approximately 50%. It is to be anticipated that, with the aging of the U.S. population, this trend will continue. There has been a decrease of approximately 33% in bladder cancer mortality during the same interval (National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, 1973–1997). It is estimated that 15,210 Americans will die of bladder cancer in 2013.[1]The age-adjusted mortality from

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