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    Bladder Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Bladder Cancer

    1. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Bladder Cancer

      Nonmuscle-invasive Bladder CancerTreatment of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancers (Ta, Tis, T1) is based on risk stratification. Essentially all patients are initially treated with a transurethral resection (TUR) of the bladder tumor followed by a single immediate instillation of intravesical chemotherapy (mitomycin C is typically used in the United States).[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]Subsequent therapy after the treatment above is based on risk and typically consists of one of the following:[6,7,8,9]Surveillance for relapse or recurrence (typically used for tumors with low risk of recurrence or progression).A minimum of 1 year of intravesical treatments with bascillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) plus surveillance for relapse (typically used for tumors at intermediate or high risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease).Additional intravesical chemotherapy (typically used for tumors with a high risk of recurrence but low risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease).Muscle-invasive

    2. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062705-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Bladder Cancer Treatment

    3. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    4. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of bladder cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    5. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Bladder Cancer

      Treatment of recurrent bladder cancer depends on previous treatment and where the cancer has recurred. Treatment for recurrent bladder cancer may include the following: Surgery.Chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.A clinical trial of chemotherapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent bladder cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

    6. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Urethral Cancer

      Incidence and MortalityUrethral cancer is rare. The annual incidence rates in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database over the period from 1973 to 2002 in the United States for men and for women were 4.3 and 1.5 per million, respectively, with downward trends over the three decades.[1] The incidence was twice as high in African Americans as in whites (5 million vs. 2.5 per million). Urethral cancers appear to be associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, a strain of HPV known to be causative for cervical cancer.[2,3]Because of its rarity, nearly all information about the treatment of urethral cancer and the outcomes of therapy is derived from retrospective, single-center case series and, therefore, represents a very low level of evidence of 3iiiDiv. The majority of information comes from cases accumulated over many decades at major academic centers.AnatomyThe female urethra is largely contained within the anterior vaginal wall. In

    7. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 27 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Description of EvidenceAdded text to state that a positive family history of bladder cancer has also been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (cited Burger et al. as reference 3).Added Gu et al., Engel et al., and Sanderson et al. as references 8, 10, and 14, respectively.Revised text to state that a variety of industrial exposures have also been implicated as risk factors for developing bladder cancer, primarily aromatic amines, such as 2-naphthylamine, beta-naphthylamine, or 4-chloro-o-toluidine, present in the production of dyes and benzidine and its derivatives; possibly chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons; chlorination by-products in treated water; aluminum production (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fluorides), and certain aldehydes.Revised text to state that

    8. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Bladder Cancer

      For more information from the National Cancer Institute about bladder cancer, see the following:Bladder Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Bladder CancerBladder and Other Urothelial Cancers ScreeningUnusual Cancers of ChildhoodDrugs Approved for Bladder CancerBiological Therapies for CancerSmoking Home Page (Includes help with quitting)For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

    9. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Bladder Cancer

      Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller. The bladder stores urine until it is passed out of the body. Urine is the liquid waste that is made by the kidneys when they clean the

    10. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Urethral Cancer

      Prognosis and treatment decisions are both determined by:[1]The anatomical location of the primary tumor.The size of the tumor.The stage of the cancer.The depth of invasion of the tumor.The histology of the primary tumor is of less importance in estimating response to therapy and survival.[2] Endoscopic examination, urethrography, and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in determining the local extent of the tumor.[3,4]Distal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often superficial. Female: Lesions of the distal third of the urethra.Male: Anterior, or penile, portion of the urethra, including the meatus and pendulous urethra.Proximal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often deeply invasive. Female: Lesions not clearly limited to the distal third of the urethra.Male: Bulbomembranous and prostatic urethra.Urethral Cancer Associated with Invasive Bladder CancerApproximately 5% to 10% of men with cystectomy for bladder cancer may have or may develop urethral cancer distal to the urogenital

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