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Bladder Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Bladder Cancer

  1. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers screening.

  2. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage 0 Bladder Cancer

    Stage 0 bladder cancer is defined by the following TNM classifications:Ta, N0, M0Tis, N0, M0Patients with stage 0 bladder tumors can be cured by a variety of treatments, even though the tendency for new tumor formation is high. In a series of patients with Ta or T1 tumors, who were followed for a minimum of 20 years or until death, the risk of bladder cancer recurrence following initial resection was 80%.[1] Patients at greatest risk of recurrent disease are those whose tumors are large, poorly differentiated, multiple, or associated with nuclear p53 overexpression. In addition, patients with carcinoma in situ (Tis) or dysplasia of grossly uninvolved bladder epithelium are at greater risk of recurrence and progression.[1,2,3]Transurethral resection (TUR) and fulguration are the most common and conservative forms of management. Careful surveillance of subsequent bladder tumor progression is important. One retrospective series addressed the value of performing a second TUR

  3. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Proximal Urethral Cancer

    Female Proximal Urethral CancerLesions of the proximal or entire length of the urethra are usually associated with invasion and a high incidence of pelvic nodal metastases. The prospects for cure are limited except in the case of small tumors. The best results have been achieved with exenterative surgery and urinary diversion with 5-year survival rates ranging from 10% to 20%. To increase the resectability rate of gross tumor and decrease local recurrence, in an effort to shrink tumor margins, it is reasonable to recommend adjunctive, preoperative, radiation therapy. Pelvic lymphadenectomy is performed concomitantly. Ipsilateral inguinal node dissection is indicated only if biopsy specimens of ipsilateral palpable adenopathy are positive on frozen section. For tumors that do not exceed 2 cm in greatest dimension, radiation alone, nonexenterative surgery alone, or a combination of the two may be sufficient to provide an excellent outcome.It is reasonable to consider removal of part of

  4. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Bladder Cancer

    Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.) Stage III bladder cancer is defined by the following TNM classifications: T3a,..

  5. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

    Incidence and Mortality Bladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in the United States. It is estimated that 69,250 new cases of bladder cancer are expected to occur in the United States in 2011.[ 1 ] Bladder cancer is diagnosed almost twice as often in whites as in blacks of either sex. The incidence of bladder cancer among other ethnic and racial groups in the ...

  6. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (03 / 06 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Description of EvidenceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Added Howlader et al. as reference 2.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  7. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062925-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Urethral Cancer Treatment

  8. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Urethral Cancer

    Prognosis and treatment decisions are both determined by:[1]The anatomical location of the primary tumor.The size of the tumor.The stage of the cancer.The depth of invasion of the tumor.The histology of the primary tumor is of less importance in estimating response to therapy and survival.[2] Endoscopic examination, urethrography, and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in determining the local extent of the tumor.[3,4]Distal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often superficial. Female: Lesions of the distal third of the urethra.Male: Anterior, or penile, portion of the urethra, including the meatus and pendulous urethra.Proximal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often deeply invasive. Female: Lesions not clearly limited to the distal third of the urethra.Male: Bulbomembranous and prostatic urethra.Urethral Cancer Associated with Invasive Bladder CancerApproximately 5% to 10% of men with cystectomy for bladder cancer may have or may develop urethral cancer distal to the urogenital

  9. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Bladder Cancer

    Related Summaries Note: Other PDQ summaries containing information related to bladder cancer include the following: Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening Unusual Cancers of Childhood Statistics Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from bladder cancer in the United States in 2010:[ 1 ] New cases: 70,530. Deaths: 14,680. Prognosis Approximately 70% to 80% of patients with newly diagnosed ...

  10. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Urethral Cancer Associated With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Approximately 10% of patients having cystectomy for bladder cancer can be expected to have or to later develop clinical neoplasm of the urethra distal to the urogenital diaphragm. An autopsy series of patients having had cystectomy for bladder cancer documented histologic evidence of urethral neoplasm in 20% of the patients. A review from the Royal Marsden Hospital showed that those patients ...

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