Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
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Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062875-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Bladder Cancer Treatment
The prognosis for any patient with progressive or recurrent invasive bladder cancer is generally poor. Management of recurrence depends on previous therapy, sites of recurrence, and individual patient considerations. Treatment of new superficial or locally invasive tumors that develop in the setting of previous conservative therapy for superficial bladder neoplasia has been discussed earlier in this summary.Recurrent or progressive disease in distant sites or after definitive local therapy has an extremely poor prognosis, and clinical trials should be considered whenever possible. Patients who have not received previous chemotherapy for urothelial carcinoma should be considered for chemotherapy as described above for stage IV disease. Palliative radiation therapy should be considered for patients with symptomatic tumors.Standard Treatment Options for Recurrent Bladder CancerStandard treatment options for patients with recurrent bladder cancer include the following:Combination
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 23 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Bladder Cancer
Treatment of recurrent bladder cancer depends on previous treatment and where the cancer has recurred. Treatment for recurrent bladder cancer may include the following: Surgery.Chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.A clinical trial of chemotherapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent bladder cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with bladder cancer. Different types of treatment are available for patients with bladder cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Four types of standard treatment are used:Surgery One of the following types of surgery may be done: Transurethral resection (TUR) with fulguration: Surgery in which a cystoscope (a thin lighted tube) is inserted into the bladder through the urethra. A tool with a small wire loop on the end is then used
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Proximal Urethral Cancer
Female Proximal Urethral CancerLesions of the proximal or entire length of the urethra are usually associated with invasion and a high incidence of pelvic nodal metastases. The prospects for cure are limited except in the case of small tumors. The best results have been achieved with exenterative surgery and urinary diversion with 5-year survival rates ranging from 10% to 20%. To increase the resectability rate of gross tumor and decrease local recurrence, in an effort to shrink tumor margins, it is reasonable to recommend adjunctive, preoperative, radiation therapy. Pelvic lymphadenectomy is performed concomitantly. Ipsilateral inguinal node dissection is indicated only if biopsy specimens of ipsilateral palpable adenopathy are positive on frozen section. For tumors that do not exceed 2 cm in greatest dimension, radiation alone, nonexenterative surgery alone, or a combination of the two may be sufficient to provide an excellent outcome.It is reasonable to consider removal of part of
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Urethral Cancer
In an analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data from 1973 to 2002, the most common histologic types of urethral cancer were:Transitional cell (55%).Squamous cell (21.5%).Adenocarcinoma (16.4%).Other cell types, such as melanoma, were extremely rare.The female urethra is lined by transitional cell mucosa proximally and stratified squamous cells distally. Therefore, transitional cell carcinoma is most common in the proximal urethra and squamous cell carcinoma predominates in the distal urethra. Adenocarcinoma may occur in both locations and arises from metaplasia of the numerous periurethral glands. The male urethra is lined by transitional cells in its prostatic and membranous portion and stratified columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium in the bulbous and penile portions. The submucosa of the urethra contains numerous glands. Therefore, urethral cancer in the male can manifest the histological characteristics of transitional cell carcinoma,
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence
Incidence and MortalityBladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in the United States. It is estimated that 72,570 new cases of bladder cancer are expected to occur in the United States in 2013.Bladder cancer is diagnosed almost twice as often in whites as in blacks of either sex. The incidence of bladder cancer among other ethnic and racial groups in the United States falls between that of blacks and whites. The incidence of bladder cancer increases with age.Since the 1950s, the incidence of bladder cancer has risen by approximately 50%. It is to be anticipated that, with the aging of the U.S. population, this trend will continue. There has been a decrease of approximately 33% in bladder cancer mortality during the same interval (National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, 1973–1997). It is estimated that 15,210 Americans will die of bladder cancer in 2013.The age-adjusted mortality from