In an analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data from 1973 to 2002, the most common histologic types of urethral cancer were:Transitional cell (55%).Squamous cell (21.5%).Adenocarcinoma (16.4%).Other cell types, such as melanoma, were extremely rare.The female urethra is lined by transitional cell mucosa proximally and stratified squamous cells distally. Therefore, transitional cell carcinoma is most common in the proximal urethra and squamous cell carcinoma predominates in the distal urethra. Adenocarcinoma may occur in both locations and arises from metaplasia of the numerous periurethral glands. The male urethra is lined by transitional cells in its prostatic and membranous portion and stratified columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium in the bulbous and penile portions. The submucosa of the urethra contains numerous glands. Therefore, urethral cancer in the male can manifest the histological characteristics of transitional cell carcinoma,
Incidence and MortalityUrethral cancer is rare. The annual incidence rates in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database over the period from 1973 to 2002 in the United States for men and for women were 4.3 and 1.5 per million, respectively, with downward trends over the three decades. The incidence was twice as high in African Americans as in whites (5 million vs. 2.5 per million). Urethral cancers appear to be associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, a strain of HPV known to be causative for cervical cancer.[2,3]Because of its rarity, nearly all information about the treatment of urethral cancer and the outcomes of therapy is derived from retrospective, single-center case series and, therefore, represents a very low level of evidence of 3iiiDiv. The majority of information comes from cases accumulated over many decades at major academic centers.AnatomyThe female urethra is largely contained within the anterior vaginal wall. In
Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller. The bladder stores urine until it is passed out of the body. Urine is the liquid waste that is made by the kidneys when they clean the
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Description of EvidenceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Added Howlader et al. as reference 2.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
PURPOSE OF THIS SUMMARY This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive,peer-reviewed,evidence-based information about the treatment of urethral cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. REVIEWERS AND UPDATES ...
PURPOSE OF THIS SUMMARY This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive,peer-reviewed,evidence-based information about the treatment of bladder cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. REVIEWERS AND UPDATES ...
Get more information on urethral cancer treatment. How to contact the National Cancer Institute (NCI) via phone (1-800-4-Cancer), online, or mail. Plus, details on how to search the NCI web site, and how to order NCI publications.
Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder to treat bladder cancer that has spread into the bladder wall (stages II and III) or to treat cancer that has come back (recurred) following initial treatment.