To diagnose bladder cancer, your doctor completes a thorough medical history and examination. You will then be referred to a urologist, a physician who has special training in managing diseases of the bladder.
The first test the urologist may perform is a cystoscopy. During a cystoscopy, the urologist will pass a cystoscope (a fiber-optic lighted tube) through the urethra in order to view the bladder. A urine sample for cytology will be obtained and a brush biopsy will be performed, a combination...
Added text to state that a positive family history of bladder cancer has also been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (cited Burger et al. as reference 3).
Added Gu et al., Engel et al., and Sanderson et al. as references 8, 10, and 14, respectively.
Revised text to state that a variety of industrial exposures have also been implicated as risk factors for developing bladder cancer, primarily aromatic amines, such as 2-naphthylamine, beta-naphthylamine, or 4-chloro-o-toluidine, present in the production of dyes and benzidine and its derivatives; possibly chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons; chlorination by-products in treated water; aluminum production (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fluorides), and certain aldehydes.
Revised text to state that occupations reported to be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer include those that involve processing paint, dye, metal, and petroleum products (cited Brown et al. as reference 18).
Added text to state that exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds, such as gallium arsenide, is also associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (cited Fernández et al. and Letašiová et al. as references 23 and 24, respectively).
Revised text to state that additional risk factors associated with more aggressive forms of bladder cancer include neuropathic bladder and associated indwelling catheters; Schistosoma haematobium bladder infections; exposure to the cancer chemotherapy agent cyclophosphamide and perhaps other alkylating agents, such as ifosfamide; and pelvic radiation therapy for other malignancies, such as prostate cancer, uterine cancer, and cervical cancer (cited Monach et al., Abern et al., Nieder et al., Lönn et al., and Chaturvedi et al. as references 28, 30, 31, 32, and 33, respectively).
Added text to state that specific genetic mutations associated with bladder cancer include the following: HRAS mutations, RB1 mutation, PTEN/MMAC1 mutation, NAT2 slow acetylator phenotype, and GSTM1 null phenotype (cited Lindor et al., Gallagher et al., and Marees et al. as references 34, 35, and 36, respectively).
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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute
September 04, 2014
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