Major drug companies continually research and develop new medications and treatments for bladder cancer that must be shown to be safe and effective before doctors can prescribe them to patients. Through clinical trials, researchers test the effects of new drugs on a group of volunteers with bladder cancer. Following a strict protocol and using carefully controlled conditions, researchers evaluate the investigational drugs under development and measure the ability of the new drug to treat bladder...
Added text to state that a positive family history of bladder cancer has also been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (cited Burger et al. as reference 3).
Added Gu et al., Engel et al., and Sanderson et al. as references 8, 10, and 14, respectively.
Revised text to state that a variety of industrial exposures have also been implicated as risk factors for developing bladder cancer, primarily aromatic amines, such as 2-naphthylamine, beta-naphthylamine, or 4-chloro-o-toluidine, present in the production of dyes and benzidine and its derivatives; possibly chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons; chlorination by-products in treated water; aluminum production (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fluorides), and certain aldehydes.
Revised text to state that occupations reported to be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer include those that involve processing paint, dye, metal, and petroleum products (cited Brown et al. as reference 18).
Added text to state that exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds, such as gallium arsenide, is also associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (cited Fernández et al. and Letašiová et al. as references 23 and 24, respectively).
Revised text to state that additional risk factors associated with more aggressive forms of bladder cancer include neuropathic bladder and associated indwelling catheters; Schistosoma haematobium bladder infections; exposure to the cancer chemotherapy agent cyclophosphamide and perhaps other alkylating agents, such as ifosfamide; and pelvic radiation therapy for other malignancies, such as prostate cancer, uterine cancer, and cervical cancer (cited Monach et al., Abern et al., Nieder et al., Lönn et al., and Chaturvedi et al. as references 28, 30, 31, 32, and 33, respectively).
Added text to state that specific genetic mutations associated with bladder cancer include the following: HRAS mutations, RB1 mutation, PTEN/MMAC1 mutation, NAT2 slow acetylator phenotype, and GSTM1 null phenotype (cited Lindor et al., Gallagher et al., and Marees et al. as references 34, 35, and 36, respectively).
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
In this article
This information is produced and provided by the National
Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National
Institute via the Internet web site at http://
.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.
WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute
September 04, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor.
Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this