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    Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages II and III Bladder Cancer Treatment


    Segmental cystectomy (in selected patients)

    Segmental cystectomy is appropriate only in very selected patients.[1] There are no randomized controlled trials comparing segmental cystectomy with radical cystectomy. Only patients with adenocarcinomas of the urachus are routinely treated with segmental cystectomy. These tumors typically are mucinous adenocarcinomas occurring at the dome of the bladder and are treated with an en bloc resection of the bladder dome and urachal remnant, including the umbilicus.[29,30,31,32]

    TUR with fulguration (in selected patients)

    Stage II bladder cancer may be controlled in some patients by TUR, but more aggressive forms of treatment are often dictated by recurrent tumor or by the large size, multiple foci, or undifferentiated grade of the neoplasm.

    Current Clinical Trials

    Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage II bladder cancer and stage III bladder cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

    General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


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    3. Sherif A, Holmberg L, Rintala E, et al.: Neoadjuvant cisplatinum based combination chemotherapy in patients with invasive bladder cancer: a combined analysis of two Nordic studies. Eur Urol 45 (3): 297-303, 2004.
    4. Winquist E, Kirchner TS, Segal R, et al.: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Urol 171 (2 Pt 1): 561-9, 2004.
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    10. Hart S, Skinner EC, Meyerowitz BE, et al.: Quality of life after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in patients with an ileal conduit, cutaneous or urethral kock pouch. J Urol 162 (1): 77-81, 1999.
    11. Miyao N, Adachi H, Sato Y, et al.: Recovery of sexual function after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy or cystectomy. Int J Urol 8 (4): 158-64, 2001.
    12. Zippe CD, Raina R, Shah AD, et al.: Female sexual dysfunction after radical cystectomy: a new outcome measure. Urology 63 (6): 1153-7, 2004.
    13. Brendler CB, Steinberg GD, Marshall FF, et al.: Local recurrence and survival following nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy. J Urol 144 (5): 1137-40; discussion 1140-1, 1990.
    14. Skinner DG, Boyd SD, Lieskovsky G: Clinical experience with the Kock continent ileal reservoir for urinary diversion. J Urol 132 (6): 1101-7, 1984.
    15. Fowler JE: Continent urinary reservoirs and bladder substitutes in the adult: part I. Monographs in Urology 8 (2): 1987.
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    17. Figueroa AJ, Stein JP, Dickinson M, et al.: Radical cystectomy for elderly patients with bladder carcinoma: an updated experience with 404 patients. Cancer 83 (1): 141-7, 1998.
    18. Smith JA Jr, Crawford ED, Paradelo JC, et al.: Treatment of advanced bladder cancer with combined preoperative irradiation and radical cystectomy versus radical cystectomy alone: a phase III intergroup study. J Urol 157 (3): 805-7; discussion 807-8, 1997.
    19. Neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a randomised controlled trial. International collaboration of trialists. Lancet 354 (9178): 533-40, 1999.
    20. Griffiths G, Hall R, Sylvester R, et al.: International phase III trial assessing neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: long-term results of the BA06 30894 trial. J Clin Oncol 29 (16): 2171-7, 2011.
    21. Grossman HB, Natale RB, Tangen CM, et al.: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus cystectomy compared with cystectomy alone for locally advanced bladder cancer. N Engl J Med 349 (9): 859-66, 2003.
    22. James ND, Hussain SA, Hall E, et al.: Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. N Engl J Med 366 (16): 1477-88, 2012.
    23. Efstathiou JA, Zietman AL, Kaufman DS, et al.: Bladder-sparing approaches to invasive disease. World J Urol 24 (5): 517-29, 2006.
    24. Kachnic LA, Kaufman DS, Heney NM, et al.: Bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol 15 (3): 1022-9, 1997.
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    26. Rödel C, Grabenbauer GG, Kühn R, et al.: Combined-modality treatment and selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer: long-term results. J Clin Oncol 20 (14): 3061-71, 2002.
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    29. Ashley RA, Inman BA, Sebo TJ, et al.: Urachal carcinoma: clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes of an aggressive malignancy. Cancer 107 (4): 712-20, 2006.
    30. Siefker-Radtke A: Urachal carcinoma: surgical and chemotherapeutic options. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 6 (12): 1715-21, 2006.
    31. Herr HW, Bochner BH, Sharp D, et al.: Urachal carcinoma: contemporary surgical outcomes. J Urol 178 (1): 74-8; discussion 78, 2007.
    32. Bruins HM, Visser O, Ploeg M, et al.: The clinical epidemiology of urachal carcinoma: results of a large, population based study. J Urol 188 (4): 1102-7, 2012.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: 8/, 015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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