Diagnosing Brain Cancer
Learn about tests used to diagnose brain cancer, including MRI, CT scans, and biopsy.
Learn more about the basics of brain cancer, including types of tumors, from the experts at WebMD.
Important It is possible that the main title of the report Glioblastoma Multiforme is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...
About This PDQ Summary
PURPOSE OF THIS SUMMARY This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive,peer-reviewed,evidence-based information about neuroblastoma screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. REVIEWERS AND UPDATES This ...
Treatment of Recurrent Childhood High-Grade Astrocytomas
Most patients with high-grade astrocytomas or gliomas will eventually have tumor recurrence, usually within 3 years of original diagnosis but perhaps many years after initial treatment. Disease may recur at the primary tumor site, at the margin of the resection/radiation bed, or at noncontiguous central nervous system sites. Systemic relapse is rare but may occur. At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation for extent of relapse is indicated for all malignant tumors. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion, and the clinical picture. Patients for whom initial treatment fails may benefit from additional treatment.
Changes to This Summary (02 / 15 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. General Information About Adult Brain TumorsUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
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This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information on Adult Brain Tumors treatment.
Classification of Adult Brain Tumors
This classification is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. The WHO approach incorporates and interrelates morphology, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and immunologic markers in an attempt to construct a cellular classification that is universally applicable and prognostically valid. Earlier attempts to develop a TNM-based classification were dropped: tumor size (T) is less relevant than tumor histology and location, nodal status (N) does not apply because the brain and spinal cord have no lymphatics, and metastatic spread (M) rarely applies because most patients with CNS neoplasms do not live long enough to develop metastatic disease.The WHO grading of CNS tumors establishes a malignancy scale based on histologic features of the tumor. The histologic
Treatment of Childhood High-Grade Astrocytomas
To determine and implement optimum management, treatment is often guided by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors. The therapy for both children and adults with supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Outcome in high-grade gliomas occurring in childhood may be more favorable than that in adults, but it is not clear if this difference is caused by biologic variations in tumor characteristics, therapies used, tumor resectability, or other factors that are presently not understood. The ability to obtain a complete resection is associated with a better prognosis. Radiation therapy is administered to a field that widely encompasses the entire tumor. The radiation therapy dose to the tumor bed is usually at least 54 Gy. Despite such therapy, overall survival rates remain poor. Similarly poor survival is seen in children with spinal cord primaries and children with
Treatment Option Overview
The treatments described in this summary are based on the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Risk Stratification Schema,which is described in the Stage Information section of this summary. The risk of progression of the tumor causing morbidity and mortality is gauged based on the stage of the tumor,the age of the child at diagnosis,and tumor biology. The biological features considered are the ...