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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

      The brain is made of different kinds of cells. Childhood brain tumors are grouped and treated based on the type of cell the cancer formed in and where the tumor began growing in the CNS. Some types of tumors are divided into subtypes based on how the tumor looks under a microscope. See Table 1 for a list of tumor types and staging and treatment information for newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood brain tumors.Table 1. The Staging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Tumors According to Tumor Type or SubtypeTumor TypeTumor SubtypeStaging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin  –Low-Grade AstrocytomasDiffuse fibrillary astrocytomaSeeChildhood Astrocytomas Treatmentfor information on low-grade astrocytomas.Gemistocytic astrocytomaOligoastrocytomaOligodendrogliomaPilocytic astrocytomaPilomyxoid astrocytomaPleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaProtoplasmic

    2. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Subependymoma

      In the newly diagnosed patient, careful evaluation to fully determine the extent of disease must precede the treatment of ependymoma. Surgery should be performed in an attempt at maximal tumor reduction; children have improved progression-free survival (PFS) if there is minimal residual disease present after surgery.[1,2] Postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed to determine the extent of resection, although the rate of dissemination is low. If not performed preoperatively, MRI of the entire neuraxis should be obtained to evaluate for disease dissemination. Myxopapillary ependymomas, considered to be a benign histologic subtype of ependymoma, have a relatively high incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumor dissemination at diagnosis and at follow-up, and require imaging of the complete cranial spinal axis at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.[3,4] Patients with residual tumor or disseminated disease should be considered at high risk for

    3. Glioblastoma Multiforme

      Important It is possible that the main title of the report Glioblastoma Multiforme is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...

    4. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Neuroblastoma Cancer

      Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in nerve tissue.Neuroblastoma often begins in the nerve tissue of the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney, in the back of the upper abdomen. The adrenal glands make important hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and the way the body reacts to stress. Neuroblastoma may also begin in the abdomen, chest, spinal cord, or in nerve tissue near the spine in the neck.Anatomy of the female urinary system showing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.Neuroblastoma most often begins during early childhood, usually in children younger than 5 years of age.See the PDQ summary on Neuroblastoma Treatment for more

    5. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Childhood Ependymoma

      A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your child's doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for your child.Newly Diagnosed Childhood EpendymomaA child with a newly diagnosed ependymoma has not had treatment for the tumor. The child may have had treatment to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor.Treatment for newly diagnosed childhood ependymoma is usually surgery to remove the tumor. More treatment may be given after surgery. Treatment given after surgery depends on the following:Age of the child.Amount of tumor that was removed.Whether cancer cells have spread to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.Treatment for children aged 3 and olderIf the tumor is completely removed by surgery and cancer cells have not spread within the brain and spinal cord, treatment may include the following:Radiation therapy to the tumor bed (the area

    6. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Childhood Ependymoma

      Many of the improvements in survival in childhood cancer have been made as a result of clinical trials that have attempted to improve on the best available, accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare new therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new treatment and comparing the results with those previously obtained with existing therapy. Because of the relative rarity of cancer in children, all patients with aggressive brain tumors should be considered for entry into a clinical trial. To determine and implement optimum treatment, treatment planning by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors is required. Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically very demanding and should be carried out in centers that have experience in that area in order to ensure optimal results.

    7. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through

    8. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of pituitary tumors. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    9. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    10. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062680-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview

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