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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Tumors

    Tumors of many different cell types may form in the spinal cord. Low-grade spinal cord tumors usually do not spread. High-grade spinal cord tumors may spread to other places in the spinal cord or to the brain. See the following PDQ summaries for more information on staging and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood spinal cord tumors:Childhood Astrocytomas TreatmentChildhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors TreatmentChildhood Ependymoma Treatment

  2. General Information About Childhood Ependymoma

    Childhood ependymoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. The brain controls vital functions such as memory and learning,the senses (hearing,sight,smell,taste,and touch),and emotion. The spinal cord is made up of bundles of nerve fibers that connect the brain with nerves in most parts of the body. About 1 in 11 childhood brain ...

  3. Changes to This Summary (01 / 30 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Treatment of Recurrent Childhood EpendymomaAdded Bouffet et al. as reference 8.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  4. nci_ncicdr0000062915-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Pituitary Tumors Treatment

  5. Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Neuroblastoma

    The Children's Oncology Group (COG) intermediate-risk group assignment criteria are described in Table 7. Table 7. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma Intermediate-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, DI = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).c INSS stage 3 or stage 4 patients with clinical symptoms as listed above receive immediate chemotherapy.d INSS stage 4S infants with favorable biology and clinical symptoms are treated with immediate chemotherapy until

  6. Treatment Options for Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your child's doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for your child.Untreated Childhood Brain Stem GliomaUntreated childhood brain stem glioma is a tumor for which no treatment has been given. The child may have received drugs or treatment to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor.Standard treatment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is usually radiation therapy.Some of the treatments being studied in clinical trials for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma include the following:Radiation therapy with a radiosensitizer.Standard treatment of focal or low-grade glioma may include the following:Surgery with or without radiation therapy, which may be followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.Cerebrospinal fluid diversion followed by watchful waiting.Treatment of brain stem glioma in children with

  7. Cellular Classification of Neuroblastic Tumors

    Neuroblastomas are classified as one of the small, round, blue cell tumors of childhood. They are a heterogenous group of tumors composed of cellular aggregates with different degrees of differentiation, from mature ganglioneuromas to less mature ganglioneuroblastomas to immature neuroblastomas, reflecting the varying malignant potential of these tumors.[1]There are two cellular classification systems for neuroblastoma.International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) System: The INPC system involves evaluation of tumor specimens obtained before therapy for the following morphologic features:[2,3,4,5]Amount of Schwannian stroma.Degree of neuroblastic maturation.Mitosis-karyorrhexis index of the neuroblastic cells.Favorable and unfavorable prognoses are defined on the basis of these histologic parameters and patient age. The prognostic significance of this classification system, and of related systems using similar criteria, has

  8. Management of Specific Tumor Types and Locations

    Brain Stem GliomasStandard treatment options:Radiation therapy.Brain stem gliomas have relatively poor prognoses that correlate with histology (when biopsies are performed), location, and extent of tumor. The overall median survival time of patients in studies has been 44 to 74 weeks.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with adult brain stem glioma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.Pineal Astrocytic TumorsStandard treatment options:Surgery plus radiation therapy for patients with pilocytic or diffuse astrocytoma.Surgery plus radiation therapy and chemotherapy for patients with higher grade tumors.Depending on the degree of anaplasia, pineal astrocytomas vary in prognoses. Higher grades have worse prognoses. Pilocytic

  9. Pituitary Carcinomas Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Pituitary CarcinomasStandard treatment options for pituitary carcinomas include the following:Surgery.Dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, pergolide, quinagolide, and cabergoline, for prolactin (PRL)-producing carcinomas.Somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide, for growth hormone (GH)-producing and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing carcinomas.Adjuvant radiation therapy, which does not appear to change the disease's outcome.Chemotherapy, which is of little benefit.Some reports indicate that as many as 88% of pituitary carcinomas are endocrinologically active, and adrenocorticotrophin hormone-secreting tumors are the most common.[1] Treatments for patients with pituitary carcinomas are palliative, with the mean survival time ranging from 2 years to 2.4 years, though several case reports of long-term survivors have been published.[2,3,4,5]Treatment options for patients with pituitary carcinomas include resection and dopamine agonists for

  10. General Approach to Care for Children with Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Important concepts that should be understood by those treating and caring for a child who has a brain tumor or spinal cord tumor include the following: The cause of most childhood brain tumors remains unknown.[1]Selection of an appropriate therapy can only occur if the correct diagnosis is made and the stage of the disease is accurately determined.Children with primary brain or spinal cord tumors represent a major therapy challenge that, for optimal results, requires the coordinated efforts of pediatric specialists in fields such as neurosurgery, neuropathology, radiation oncology, pediatric oncology, neuro-oncology, neurology, rehabilitation, neuroradiology, endocrinology, and psychology, who have special expertise in the care of patients with these diseases.[2,3] For example, radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically demanding and should be performed in centers that have experience in this area.For most childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, the optimal treatment

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