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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Pituitary Tumors Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Recurrent Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for recurrent pituitary tumors include the following:Radiation therapy for postsurgical recurrence, which offers a high likelihood of local control.[1,2]Reirradiation, which provides long-term local control and control of visual symptoms.[3]The question and selection of further treatment for patients who relapse is dependent on many factors, including the specific type of pituitary tumor, prior treatment, visual and hormonal complications, and individual patient considerations. Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Recurrent Pituitary TumorsTreatment options under clinical evaluation for recurrent pituitary tumors include the following:Stereotactic radiation surgery.[4,5,6]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent pituitary tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by

    2. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about neuroblastoma screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    3. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    4. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Neuroblastoma

      Staging EvaluationA thorough evaluation for metastatic disease is performed before therapy initiation. The following studies are typically performed:[1]Metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scanBefore resection of the primary tumor, bone involvement is assessed by mIBG scan, which is applicable to all sites of disease, and by technetium-99 scan if the results of the mIBG scan are negative or unavailable.[2,3] Approximately 90% of neuroblastomas will be mIBG avid. It has a sensitivity and specificity of 90% to 99% and is equally distributed between primary and metastatic sites.[4] Although iodine 128 (123 I) has a shorter half-life, it is preferred over131 I because of its lower radiation dose, better quality images, less thyroid toxicity, and lower cost. Imaging with 123 I-mIBG is optimal for identifying soft tissue and bony metastases and is superior to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computerized tomography (PET-CT) in a prospective comparison.[5] Baseline mIBG

    5. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Neuroblastoma Screening

      Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer.Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and in decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer.Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, the chance of recovery is better if the disease is found and treated at an early stage.Clinical trials that study cancer screening methods are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.There is no standard or routine

    6. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062900-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Adult Brain Tumors Treatment

    7. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of High-Risk Neuroblastoma

      The Children's Oncology Group (COG) high-risk group assignment criteria are described in Table 8.Table 8. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma High-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, DI = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).c INSS stage 2A/2B symptomatic patients with spinal cord compression, neurologic deficits, or other symptoms are treated with immediate chemotherapy for four cycles.d INSS stage 3 or stage 4 patients with clinical symptoms

    8. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

      A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your child's doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for your child.Untreated Childhood Brain Stem GliomaUntreated childhood brain stem glioma is a tumor for which no treatment has been given. The child may have received drugs or treatment to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor.Standard treatment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is usually radiation therapy.Some of the treatments being studied in clinical trials for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma include the following:Radiation therapy with a radiosensitizer.Standard treatment of focal or low-grade glioma may include the following:Surgery with or without radiation therapy, which may be followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.Cerebrospinal fluid diversion followed by watchful waiting.Treatment of brain stem glioma in children with

    9. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      There are different types of treatment for children with brain stem glioma. Different types of treatment are available for children with brain stem glioma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Children with brain stem glioma should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in treating childhood brain tumors.Treatment will be overseen by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The

    10. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Ependymoma

      The PDQ childhood brain tumor treatment summaries are organized primarily according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of nervous system tumors.[1,2] For a full description of the classification of nervous system tumors and a link to the corresponding treatment summary for each type of brain tumor, refer to the PDQ summary on Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview.Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50%.[3] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close follow-up because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.)Primary brain tumors are a diverse group of diseases that

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