Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Ependymoma
The area where the tumor is found and the child's age are used in place of a staging system to plan cancer treatment.Staging is the process used to find out how much cancer there is and if cancer has spread. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. There is no standard staging system for childhood ependymoma. Instead, the plan for cancer treatment after surgery depends on the following: Whether any cancer cells remain after surgery.Whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.The age of the child.The information from tests and procedures done to detect (find) childhood ependymoma is used to plan cancer treatment.Some of the tests used to detect childhood ependymoma are repeated after the tumor is removed by surgery. (See the General Information section.) This is to find out how much tumor remains after surgery. Another procedure that may be done to find out if cancer has spread is a lumbar puncture. A lumbar puncture is a procedure used
Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Ependymoma
Childhood ependymoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. The brain controls vital functions such as memory and learning,the senses (hearing,sight,smell,taste,and touch),and emotion. The spinal cord is made up of bundles of nerve fibers that connect the brain with nerves in most parts of the body. About 1 in 11 childhood brain ...
Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Childhood Brain Stem Glioma
Brain stem gliomas are classified according to their location, radiographic appearance, and histology (when obtained). Brain stem gliomas may occur in the pons, midbrain, tectum, dorsum of the medulla at the cervicomedullary junction, or in multiple regions of the brain stem. The tumor may contiguously involve the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, the cervical spinal cord, and/or thalamus. The majority of childhood brain stem gliomas are diffuse, fibrillary astrocytomas that involve the pons (diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas [DIPG]), often with contiguous involvement of other brain stem sites.[1,2] The prognosis is extremely poor for these tumors. Focal pilocytic astrocytomas have a more favorable prognosis. These most frequently arise in the tectum of the midbrain, focally within the pons, or at the cervicomedullary junction where they are often exophytic, and they have a far better prognosis than diffuse intrinsic tumors.[3,4,5]The genomic characteristics of DIPG appear to
Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Neuroblastoma Screening
Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of neuroblastoma screening include the following: Neuroblastoma may be overdiagnosed. When a screening test result leads to the diagnosis and treatment of a disease that may never have caused symptoms or become life-threatening, it is called overdiagnosis. For example, when a urine test result shows a higher than normal amount of homovanillic acid (HMA) or vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA), tests and treatments for neuroblastoma are likely to be done, but may not be needed. At this time, it is not possible to know which neuroblastomas found by a screening test will cause symptoms and which neuroblastomas will not. Diagnostic tests (such as biopsies)
Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Childhood Brain Stem Glioma
Many of the improvements in survival in childhood cancer have been made as a result of clinical trials that have attempted to improve on the best available, accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare new therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new treatment and comparing the results with those that were previously obtained with existing therapy. Because of the relative rarity of cancer in children, all patients with brain tumors should be considered for entry into a clinical trial. To determine and implement optimum treatment, treatment planning by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors is required. Radiation therapy (including 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy) of pediatric brain tumors is technically very demanding and should be carried out in centers that have
Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Newly Diagnosed Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine GliomasConventional treatment for children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is radiation therapy to involved areas. Such treatment will result in transient benefit for most patients, but over 90% of patients will die within 18 months of diagnosis. The conventional dose of radiation therapy ranges between 54 Gy and 60 Gy given locally to the primary tumor site in single daily fractions. Hyperfractionated (twice daily) radiation therapy techniques have been used to deliver a higher dose, and studies using doses as high as 78 Gy have been completed. Evidence demonstrates that these increased radiation therapy doses do not improve the duration or rate of survival for patients with DIPG whether given alone,[1,2] or in combination with chemotherapy. Hypofractionated radiation therapy does not improve survival.[Level of evidence: 2A] Studies evaluating the efficacy of various radiosensitizers as a means for enhancing the therapeutic
Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Adult Brain Tumors
An adult brain tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain. There are many types of brain and spinal cord tumors. The tumors are formed by the abnormal growth of cells and may begin in different parts of the brain or spinal cord. Together,the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). The tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant ...
Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma or Anaplastic Ependymoma
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Treatment of Recurrent Childhood EpendymomaAdded Bouffet et al. as reference 8.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Childhood High-Grade Astrocytomas
Childhood low-grade astrocytomas may recur many years after initial treatment. Recurrent disease is usually at the primary tumor site, although multifocal or widely disseminated disease to other intracranial sites and to the spinal leptomeninges has been documented.[1,2] Most children whose low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas recur will harbor low-grade lesions; however, malignant transformation is possible. Surveillance imaging will frequently identify asymptomatic recurrences.At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation to determine the extent of the relapse is indicated. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion, and the