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This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about Neuroblastoma Screening.
General Approach to Care for Children with Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
Important concepts that should be understood by those treating and caring for a child who has a brain tumor or spinal cord tumor include the following: The cause of most childhood brain tumors remains unknown.Selection of an appropriate therapy can only occur if the correct diagnosis is made and the stage of the disease is accurately determined.Children with primary brain or spinal cord tumors represent a major therapy challenge that, for optimal results, requires the coordinated efforts of pediatric specialists in fields such as neurosurgery, neuropathology, radiation oncology, pediatric oncology, neuro-oncology, neurology, rehabilitation, neuroradiology, endocrinology, and psychology, who have special expertise in the care of patients with these diseases.[2,3] For example, radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically demanding and should be performed in centers that have experience in this area.For most childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, the optimal treatment
Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Neuroblastoma
In North America,the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is investigating a risk-based neuroblastoma treatment plan that assigns all patients to low-risk,intermediate-risk,and high-risk groups based on age,International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage,and tumor biology (i.e.,MYCN gene amplification,Shimada classification,and DNA ploidy). (Risk groups are defined in Table 1 of the ...
The prognosis and treatment of recurrent or progressive neuroblastoma depends on many factors including initial stage,tumor biological characteristics at recurrence,the site and extent of the recurrence or progression,and on the previous treatment as well as individual patient considerations. In selected patients originally diagnosed with low- or intermediate-risk disease,recurrence may be ...
What is screening?
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...
Management of Specific Tumor Types and Locations
Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)Brain Stem GliomasStandard treatment options:Radiation therapy.Brain stem gliomas have relatively poor prognoses that correlate with histology (when biopsies are performed), location, and extent of tumor. The overall median survival time of patients in studies has been 44 to 74 weeks.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with adult brain stem glioma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.Pineal Astrocytic TumorsStandard treatment
Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas Conventional treatment for children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is radiation therapy to involved areas. Such treatment will result in transient benefit for most patients,but over 90% of patients will die within 18 months of diagnosis. The conventional dose of radiation therapy ranges between 5,400 cGy and 6,000 cGy given locally to the primary .
To Learn More About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
For more information from the National Cancer Institute about Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors,see the following: What You Need To Know About™ Brain Tumors Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) For more childhood cancer information and other general cancer resources from the National Cancer Institute,see the following: What You Need to Know About™ Cancer - An Overview Childhood Cancers ...
Recurrent Adult Brain Tumors
SurgeryRe-resection of recurrent brain tumors is used in some patients. However, the majority of patients do not qualify because of a deteriorating condition or technically inoperable tumors. The evidence is limited to noncontrolled studies and case series on patients who are healthy enough and have small enough tumors to technically debulk. The impact of reoperation versus patient selection on survival is not known.Localized ChemotherapyCarmustine wafers have been investigated in the setting of recurrent malignant gliomas, but the impact on survival is less clear than at the time of initial diagnosis and resection. In a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 222 patients with recurrent malignant primary brain tumors requiring reoperation were randomly assigned to receive implanted carmustine wafers or placebo biodegradable wafers. Approximately half of the patients had received prior systemic chemotherapy. The two treatment groups were well balanced at baseline.
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment