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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    2. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Nonfunctioning Pituitary Tumors Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Nonfunctioning Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for nonfunctioning pituitary tumors include the following:Surgery (preferably with a transsphenoidal approach) followed by close observation with radiation therapy reserved for recurrence.[1,2]Radiation therapy.[1,2,3]Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.[1,2]The selection of treatment for patients with nonfunctioning (endocrine-inactive) tumors will depend on tumor size, the progressive course of the disease, and anatomical structures affected by the tumor extension. The majority of patients present with suprasellar extension and visual field deficits. In addition, many have hormone deficits prior to treatment. The initial treatment of patients with gonadotroph adenomas is usually by transsphenoidal surgery, particularly if the adenoma presents with neurological symptoms, because the effect of radiation therapy occurs too slowly, and no reliable medical therapy exists.[4]Surgical

    3. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 19 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Untreated Childhood Brain Stem GliomaAdded Warren et al. as reference 18 and level of evidence 2A.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    4. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Pituitary Carcinomas Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Pituitary CarcinomasStandard treatment options for pituitary carcinomas include the following:Surgery.Dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, pergolide, quinagolide, and cabergoline, for prolactin (PRL)-producing carcinomas.Somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide, for growth hormone (GH)-producing and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing carcinomas.Adjuvant radiation therapy, which does not appear to change the disease's outcome.Chemotherapy, which is of little benefit.Some reports indicate that as many as 88% of pituitary carcinomas are endocrinologically active, and adrenocorticotrophin hormone-secreting tumors are the most common.[1] Treatments for patients with pituitary carcinomas are palliative, with the mean survival time ranging from 2 years to 2.4 years, though several case reports of long-term survivors have been published.[2,3,4,5]Treatment options for patients with pituitary carcinomas include resection and dopamine agonists for

    5. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Neuroblastoma

      Tumor growth due to maturation should be differentiated from tumor progression by performing a biopsy and reviewing histology. Patients may have persistent maturing disease with metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) uptake that does not affect outcome.[1] When neuroblastoma recurs in a child originally diagnosed with high-risk disease, the prognosis is usually poor despite additional intensive therapy.[2,3,4,5] However, it is often possible to gain many additional months of life for these patients with alternative chemotherapy regimens.[6,7] Clinical trials are appropriate for these patients and may be offered. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Prognostic Factors for Recurrent NeuroblastomaThe International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Project performed a decision-tree analysis of clinical and biological characteristics (defined at diagnosis) associated with survival after relapse in 2,266 patients with neuroblastoma entered on large clinical

    6. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    7. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    8. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)-Producing Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for ACTH-producing pituitary tumors include the following:Surgery (usually a transsphenoidal approach).[1,2,3]Surgery plus radiation therapy.[1,2,4]Radiation therapy.[1,2,4]Steroidogenesis inhibitors, including mitotane, metyrapone, ketoconazole, and aminoglutethimide.[1,2,5]For patients with corticotroph adenomas, transsphenoidal microsurgery is the treatment of choice.[1,2] Remission rates reported in most series are approximately 70% to 90%.[1] In a series of 216 patients, who were operated on using a transsphenoidal approach, 75% experienced long-term remission, 21% experienced persistence of Cushing disease, and 9% had recurrence after the initial correction of the hypercortisolism.[3] The average time interval for reoperation was 3.8 years. Seventy-nine percent of the tumors were microadenomas, and 18% were macroadenomas; 86% of the cases with microadenoma had

    9. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Adult Brain Tumors

      SurgeryRe-resection of recurrent brain tumors is used in some patients. However, the majority of patients do not qualify because of a deteriorating condition or technically inoperable tumors. The evidence is limited to noncontrolled studies and case series on patients who are healthy enough and have small enough tumors to technically debulk. The impact of reoperation versus patient selection on survival is not known.Localized ChemotherapyCarmustine wafers have been investigated in the setting of recurrent malignant gliomas, but the impact on survival is less clear than at the time of initial diagnosis and resection. In a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 222 patients with recurrent malignant primary brain tumors requiring reoperation were randomly assigned to receive implanted carmustine wafers or placebo biodegradable wafers.[1] Approximately half of the patients had received prior systemic chemotherapy. The two treatment groups were well balanced at baseline.

    10. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit

      Evidence of screening effect derives from descriptive studies of local and national programs in Japan, uncontrolled pilot experiences at a number of sites in Europe and the United States, and population-based studies in Canada and Germany.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]An increase in survival rates among screen-detected cases would be expected if screening was detecting neuroblastoma at an earlier and more curable stage. While improved survival rates after initiation of screening have been reported,[8,9] these observations should be viewed cautiously because improvements could be caused by lead-time bias, length bias, and identification of cases through screening that would have spontaneously regressed. Screening results in an increased incidence of early-stage disease. The cases detected by screening almost exclusively have biologically favorable properties (unamplified N-myc oncogene, near triploidy, and favorable histology), and this type of favorable neuroblastoma has a high

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