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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      There are different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.Different types of treatment are available for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT). Treatment for AT/RT is usually within a clinical trial. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer.Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site. Choosing the most appropriate cancer treatment is a decision that ideally involves the patient, family, and health care team.Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and

    2. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Adult Brain Tumors

      Incidence and MortalityNote: Estimated new cases and deaths from brain and other nervous system tumors in the United States in 2013:[1]New cases: 23,130.Deaths: 14,080.Brain tumors account for 85% to 90% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors.[2] Available registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for 2007 indicate that the combined incidence of primary invasive CNS tumors in the United States is 6.36 per 100,000 persons per year with an estimated mortality of 4.22 per 100,000 persons per year.[3] Worldwide, approximately 238,000 new cases of brain and other CNS tumors were diagnosed in the year 2008, with an estimated 175,000 deaths.[4] In general, the incidence of primary brain tumors is higher in whites than in blacks, and mortality is higher in males than in females.[2]Few definitive observations on environmental or occupational causes of primary CNS tumors have been made.[2] Exposure to vinyl chloride may predispose to the

    3. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 07 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.

    4. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Adult Brain Tumors

      SurgeryRe-resection of recurrent brain tumors is used in some patients. However, the majority of patients do not qualify because of a deteriorating condition or technically inoperable tumors. The evidence is limited to noncontrolled studies and case series on patients who are healthy enough and have small enough tumors to technically debulk. The impact of reoperation versus patient selection on survival is not known.Localized ChemotherapyCarmustine wafers have been investigated in the setting of recurrent malignant gliomas, but the impact on survival is less clear than at the time of initial diagnosis and resection. In a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 222 patients with recurrent malignant primary brain tumors requiring reoperation were randomly assigned to receive implanted carmustine wafers or placebo biodegradable wafers.[1] Approximately half of the patients had received prior systemic chemotherapy. The two treatment groups were well balanced at baseline.

    5. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    6. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit

      Evidence of screening effect derives from descriptive studies of local and national programs in Japan, uncontrolled pilot experiences at a number of sites in Europe and the United States, and population-based studies in Canada and Germany.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]An increase in survival rates among screen-detected cases would be expected if screening was detecting neuroblastoma at an earlier and more curable stage. While improved survival rates after initiation of screening have been reported,[8,9] these observations should be viewed cautiously because improvements could be caused by lead-time bias, length bias, and identification of cases through screening that would have spontaneously regressed. Screening results in an increased incidence of early-stage disease. The cases detected by screening almost exclusively have biologically favorable properties (unamplified N-myc oncogene, near triploidy, and favorable histology), and this type of favorable neuroblastoma has a high

    7. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000614165-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    8. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Myxopapillary Ependymoma

      Recurrence is not uncommon in both benign and malignant childhood brain tumors and may develop many years after initial treatment.[1] For ependymoma, late recurrence beyond 10 to 15 years has been reported.[2,3] Disease generally recurs at the primary tumor site, even in children with malignant ependymomas.[4,5] Systemic relapse is extremely rare. At time of relapse, a complete evaluation for extent of recurrence is indicated for all patients. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the extent of the tumor, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the recurrent lesion, and the clinical picture. Patients with recurrent ependymomas who have not previously received radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy should be considered for treatment with these modalities.[6][Level of evidence: 3iiiB] In addition, patients may be candidates for focal retreatment with various radiation modalities, including stereotactic

    9. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    10. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 07 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

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