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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Diagnosing Brain Cancer

    Learn about tests used to diagnose brain cancer, including MRI, CT scans, and biopsy.

  2. Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Neuroblastoma

    In North America,the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is investigating a risk-based neuroblastoma treatment plan that assigns all patients to low-risk,intermediate-risk,and high-risk groups based on age,International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage,and tumor biology (i.e.,MYCN gene amplification,Shimada classification,and DNA ploidy). (Risk groups are defined in Table 1 of the ...

  3. Cellular Classification

    Brain stem gliomas are classified according to their location,radiographic appearance,and histology (when obtained). Brain stem gliomas may occur in the pons,the midbrain,the tectum,the dorsum of the medulla at the cervicomedullary junction,or in multiple regions of the brain stem. The tumor may contiguously involve the cerebellar peduncles,cerebellum and/or thalamus. The majority of ...

  4. Histopathologic Classification of Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign and do not metastasize to remote brain locations or to areas outside the sellar region except by direct extension. They may be invasive,however,and may recur locally. They may be classified as adamantinomous or squamous papillary,with the former being the predominant form in children.[ 1 ] They are typically composed of both a solid portion with ...

  5. General Approach to Care for Children with Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Important concepts that should be understood by those treating and caring for a child who has a brain tumor or spinal cord tumor include the following: The cause of most childhood brain tumors remains unknown.[1]Selection of an appropriate therapy can only occur if the correct diagnosis is made and the stage of the disease is accurately determined.Children with primary brain or spinal cord tumors represent a major therapy challenge that, for optimal results, requires the coordinated efforts of pediatric specialists in fields such as neurosurgery, neuropathology, radiation oncology, pediatric oncology, neuro-oncology, neurology, rehabilitation, neuroradiology, endocrinology, and psychology, who have special expertise in the care of patients with these diseases.[2,3] For example, radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically demanding and should be performed in centers that have experience in this area.For most childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, the optimal treatment

  6. Get More Information From NCI

    National Cancer Institute for more cancer information.

  7. Background Information About Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Incidence and Presentation Craniopharyngiomas are relatively rare pediatric tumors,accounting for about 6% of all intracranial tumors in children.[ 1 ] They are believed to be congenital in origin,and may arise from embryonic remnants. No predisposing factors have been identified. Because craniopharyngiomas occur in the region of the pituitary gland,endocrine function and growth may be ...

  8. Cellular Classification

    One clinicopathologic staging system involves evaluation of tumor specimens obtained prior to therapy for the amount of stromal development,the degree of neuroblastic maturation,and the mitosis-karyorrhexis index of the neuroblastic cells.[ 1,2 ] Favorable and unfavorable prognoses are defined on the bases of these histologic parameters and on patient age. The prognostic significance of this ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for children with brain stem glioma. Different types of treatment are available for children with brain stem glioma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment),and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for ...

  10. Treatment of Childhood Low-Grade Astrocytomas

    To determine and implement optimum management, treatment is often guided by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors. In infants and young children, low-grade astrocytomas presenting in the hypothalamus may result in the diencephalic syndrome, which is manifested by failure to thrive in an emaciated, seemingly euphoric child. Such children may have little in the way of other neurologic findings, but can have macrocephaly, intermittent lethargy, and visual impairment.[1] Because the location of these tumors makes a surgical approach difficult, biopsies are not always done. This is especially true in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).[2] When associated with NF1, tumors may be of multifocal origin.For children with low-grade optic pathway astrocytomas, treatment options should be considered not only to improve survival but also to stabilize visual function.[3,4] Children with isolated optic nerve tumors have a

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