Standard Treatment Options for Thyrotropin-Producing TumorsStandard treatment options for thyrotropin-producing tumors include the following:Surgery (usually a transsphenoidal approach), with or without adjuvant radiation therapy.[1,2] Somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide.[3,4]Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with thyrotropic adenomas. Adjuvant radiation therapy may be employed when surgery is known to be noncurative even if the patient is still euthyroid because relapse is inevitable, and the full effect of radiation therapy requires months or years. Medical therapy may be required for patients who still have hyperthyroid symptoms despite surgery and external radiation. Somatostatin analogues are the drugs of choice for treatment; however, the efficacy of treatment may wane with time.[1,2,3,4]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with pituitary tumor. The
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment
There is no generally applied staging system for childhood brain stem gliomas. It is uncommon for these tumors to have spread outside the brain stem itself at the time of initial diagnosis. Spread of malignant brain stem tumors is usually contiguous; metastasis via the subarachnoid space has been reported in up to 30% of cases diagnosed antemortem. Such dissemination may occur prior to local relapse but usually occurs simultaneously with or after local disease relapse.The less common tumors of the midbrain, especially in the tectal plate region, have been viewed separately from those of the brain stem because they are more likely to be low grade and have a greater likelihood of long-term survival (approximately 80% 5-year progression-free survival vs. <10% for tumors of the pons).[1,4,5,6,7,8] Similarly, dorsally exophytic and cervicomedullary tumors are generally low grade and have a relatively favorable prognosis. Children younger than 3 years may have a more favorable
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Images were added to this summary and editorial changes were made.
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.This summary was reformatted.This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
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There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.The extent or spread of cancer is usually described as stages. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. This tumor is classified as newly diagnosed or recurrent. Treatment depends on how much cancer remains after surgery and the age of the child. Results from the following procedures are used to plan treatment:MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the brain and spinal cord. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Lumbar puncture: A procedure used to collect cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal column. This is done by placing a needle into the spinal column. This procedure is also called an LP or spinal tap.