Changes to this Summary (04 / 02 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General InformationAdded Mazloom et al. as reference 46.Treatment of Childhood Low-Grade AstrocytomasAdded text about the results of a randomized phase III trial (COG-A9952) that treated children younger than 10 years with low-grade chiasmatic/hypothalamic gliomas using one of two regimens: carboplatin and vincristine (CV) or TPCV; the 5-year event-free survival rate for CV was 39% ± 4% and for TPCV was 52% ± 5%.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About
Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma
Recurrent childhood ependymoma is a tumor that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. Childhood ependymoma commonly recurs,usually at the original cancer site. The tumor may come back as long as 15 years or more after initial treatment. ...
There is no generally applied staging system for childhood brain stem gliomas.[ 1,2,3 ] It is uncommon for these tumors to have spread outside the brain stem itself at the time of initial diagnosis. Spread of malignant brain stem tumors is usually contiguous; metastasis via the subarachnoid space has been reported in up to 30% of cases diagnosed antemortem.[ 4 ] Such dissemination may occur ...
General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer
Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver.
Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for children with ependymoma. Different types of treatment are available for children with ependymoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment),and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with ...
Treatment of Recurrent Childhood High-Grade Astrocytomas
Most patients with high-grade astrocytomas or gliomas will eventually have tumor recurrence, usually within 3 years of original diagnosis but perhaps many years after initial treatment. Disease may recur at the primary tumor site, at the margin of the resection/radiation bed, or at noncontiguous central nervous system sites. Systemic relapse is rare but may occur. At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation for extent of relapse is indicated for all malignant tumors. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion, and the clinical picture. Patients for whom initial treatment fails may benefit from additional treatment.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment
Standard Treatment Options for Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)-Producing Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for ACTH-producing pituitary tumors include the following:Surgery (usually a transsphenoidal approach).[1,2,3]Surgery plus radiation therapy.[1,2,4]Radiation therapy.[1,2,4]Steroidogenesis inhibitors, including mitotane, metyrapone, ketoconazole, and aminoglutethimide.[1,2,5]For patients with corticotroph adenomas, transsphenoidal microsurgery is the treatment of choice.[1,2] Remission rates reported in most series are approximately 70% to 90%. In a series of 216 patients, who were operated on using a transsphenoidal approach, 75% experienced long-term remission, 21% experienced persistence of Cushing disease, and 9% had recurrence after the initial correction of the hypercortisolism. The average time interval for reoperation was 3.8 years. Seventy-nine percent of the tumors were microadenomas, and 18% were macroadenomas; 86% of the cases with microadenoma had
Changes to This Summary (02 / 15 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. General Information About Adult Brain TumorsUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Treatment Options for Childhood Brain Stem Glioma
Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Untreated childhood brain stem glioma is a tumor for which no treatment has been given. The child may have received drugs or treatment to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor. Standard treatment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is usually radiation therapy. Some of the treatments being studied in clinical trials for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma ...
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