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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary,please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site’s Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English. ...

  2. Changes to This Summary (02 / 01 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

  3. Changes to This Summary (02 / 01 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.

  4. Classification of Adult Brain Tumors

    This classification is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.[1] The WHO approach incorporates and interrelates morphology, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and immunologic markers in an attempt to construct a cellular classification that is universally applicable and prognostically valid. Earlier attempts to develop a TNM-based classification were dropped: tumor size (T) is less relevant than tumor histology and location, nodal status (N) does not apply because the brain and spinal cord have no lymphatics, and metastatic spread (M) rarely applies because most patients with CNS neoplasms do not live long enough to develop metastatic disease.[2]The WHO grading of CNS tumors establishes a malignancy scale based on histologic features of the tumor.[3] The histologic

  5. Treatment Options for Recurrent Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Recurrence of craniopharyngioma occurs with all modalities of primary therapy. Management is determined in large part by prior therapy. Repeat radical surgery is difficult,and complications are more frequent than with initial surgery.[ 1 ] External-beam radiation therapy is an option if this has not been previously employed. Cystic recurrences may be treated with intracavitary instillation of ...

  6. Treatment of Childhood Low-Grade Astrocytomas

    To determine and implement optimum management, treatment is often guided by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors. In infants and young children, low-grade astrocytomas presenting in the hypothalamus may result in the diencephalic syndrome, which is manifested by failure to thrive in an emaciated, seemingly euphoric child. Such children may have little in the way of other neurologic findings, but can have macrocephaly, intermittent lethargy, and visual impairment.[1] Because the location of these tumors makes a surgical approach difficult, biopsies are not always done. This is especially true in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).[2] When associated with NF1, tumors may be of multifocal origin.For children with low-grade optic pathway astrocytomas, treatment options should be considered not only to improve survival but also to stabilize visual function.[3,4] Children with isolated optic nerve tumors have a

  7. Treatment Options for Childhood Ependymoma

    Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma Newly diagnosed childhood ependymoma is a tumor that has not been treated. The patient may have received drugs or treatment,however,to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor. Initial treatment for newly diagnosed childhood ependymoma is usually surgery,with or without additional treatment. After surgery,treatment depends on the age of the child,the ...

  8. Thyrotropin-Producing Tumors Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Thyrotropin-Producing TumorsStandard treatment options for thyrotropin-producing tumors include the following:Surgery (usually a transsphenoidal approach), with or without adjuvant radiation therapy.[1,2] Somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide.[3,4]Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with thyrotropic adenomas.[1] Adjuvant radiation therapy may be employed when surgery is known to be noncurative even if the patient is still euthyroid because relapse is inevitable, and the full effect of radiation therapy requires months or years. Medical therapy may be required for patients who still have hyperthyroid symptoms despite surgery and external radiation. Somatostatin analogues are the drugs of choice for treatment; however, the efficacy of treatment may wane with time.[1,2,3,4]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with pituitary tumor. The

  9. Get More Information From NCI

    This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of Neuroblastoma.

  10. Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    Recurrent childhood brain stem glioma is a tumor that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. If childhood brain stem glioma recurs,it may do so many years after initial treatment. The tumor may come back in the brain or in other parts of the central nervous system. ...

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