Changes to this Summary (11 / 16 / 2012)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General InformationAdded text to state that ATRX is involved in epigenetic gene silencing and telomere length; ATRX mutation without MYCN amplification is associated with age at diagnosis in adolescents and young adults with metastatic neuroblastoma (cited Cheung et al. as reference 48).Added Schleiermacher et al. as reference 56.Stage InformationRevised text to state that before resection of the primary tumor, bone should be assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan, which is applicable to all sites of disease, and by technetium 99 scan if the results of the MIBG scan are negative or unavailable. Also added text to state that additional imaging of isolated or equivocal positive lesions is recommended if the primary tumor does not take up MIBG (cited Taggart et al. as reference 5).Revised
Changes to This Summary (07 / 23 / 2010)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Evidence of BenefitAdded text about a study that compared neuroblastoma incidence and mortality rates in Japan in three cohorts: children born before screening between 1980 and 1983, and those born during screening between 1986 and 1989, and between 1990 and 1998 (cited Hiyama et al. as reference 32).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Neuroblastoma
In North America,the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is investigating a risk-based neuroblastoma treatment plan that assigns all patients to low-risk,intermediate-risk,and high-risk groups based on age,International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage,and tumor biology (i.e.,MYCN gene amplification,Shimada classification,and DNA ploidy). (Risk groups are defined in Table 1 of the ...
The prognosis and treatment of recurrent or progressive neuroblastoma depends on many factors including initial stage,tumor biological characteristics at recurrence,the site and extent of the recurrence or progression,and on the previous treatment as well as individual patient considerations. In selected patients originally diagnosed with low- or intermediate-risk disease,recurrence may be ...
Stage Information for Pituitary Tumors
As with other tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), no tumor, nodes, metastases-based American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and staging system for pituitary tumors exists. Pituitary tumors are classified according to size and divided into microadenomas (i.e., the greatest diameter is <10 mm) and macroadenomas (i.e., the greatest diameter is ≥I0 mm). Most pituitary adenomas are microadenomas. The most widely used radioanatomical classification was based primarily on a neuroradiological examination including skull x-rays, pneumoencephalography, polytomography, and carotid angiography. Subsequently validated by the application of more accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, this radioanatomical classification places adenomas into 1 of 4 grades (I–IV) and has been augmented by additional studies including immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Currently, MRI is considered the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Pituitary Tumors Treatment
Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors
The brain is made of different kinds of cells. Childhood brain tumors are grouped and treated based on the type of cell the cancer formed in and where the tumor began growing in the CNS. Some types of tumors are divided into subtypes based on how the tumor looks under a microscope. See Table 1 for a list of tumor types and staging and treatment information for newly diagnosed and recurrent ...
Treatment Options for Childhood Brain Stem Glioma
Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Untreated childhood brain stem glioma is a tumor for which no treatment has been given. The child may have received drugs or treatment to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor. Standard treatment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is usually radiation therapy. Some of the treatments being studied in clinical trials for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma ...
Treatment Option Overview
How are adult brain tumors treated? Different types of treatment are available for patients with adult brain tumor. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment),and some are being tested in clinical trials. Before starting treatment,patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current ...
Risks of Neuroblastoma Screening
Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test,you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer. The risks of neuroblastoma screening include the ...