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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    2. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Nonfunctioning Pituitary Tumors Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Nonfunctioning Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for nonfunctioning pituitary tumors include the following:Surgery (preferably with a transsphenoidal approach) followed by close observation with radiation therapy reserved for recurrence.[1,2]Radiation therapy.[1,2,3]Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.[1,2]The selection of treatment for patients with nonfunctioning (endocrine-inactive) tumors will depend on tumor size, the progressive course of the disease, and anatomical structures affected by the tumor extension. The majority of patients present with suprasellar extension and visual field deficits. In addition, many have hormone deficits prior to treatment. The initial treatment of patients with gonadotroph adenomas is usually by transsphenoidal surgery, particularly if the adenoma presents with neurological symptoms, because the effect of radiation therapy occurs too slowly, and no reliable medical therapy exists.[4]Surgical

    3. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Myxopapillary Ependymoma

      Recurrence is not uncommon in both benign and malignant childhood brain tumors and may develop many years after initial treatment.[1] For ependymoma, late recurrence beyond 10 to 15 years has been reported.[2,3] Disease generally recurs at the primary tumor site, even in children with malignant ependymomas.[4,5] Systemic relapse is extremely rare. At time of relapse, a complete evaluation for extent of recurrence is indicated for all patients. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the extent of the tumor, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the recurrent lesion, and the clinical picture. Patients with recurrent ependymomas who have not previously received radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy should be considered for treatment with these modalities.[6][Level of evidence: 3iiiB] In addition, patients may be candidates for focal retreatment with various radiation modalities, including stereotactic

    4. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    5. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      There are different types of treatment for children with brain stem glioma. Different types of treatment are available for children with brain stem glioma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Children with brain stem glioma should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in treating childhood brain tumors.Treatment will be overseen by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The

    6. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Management of Specific Tumor Types and Locations

      Brain Stem GliomasStandard treatment options:Radiation therapy.Brain stem gliomas have relatively poor prognoses that correlate with histology (when biopsies are performed), location, and extent of tumor. The overall median survival time of patients in studies has been 44 to 74 weeks.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with adult brain stem glioma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.Pineal Astrocytic TumorsStandard treatment options:Surgery plus radiation therapy for patients with pilocytic or diffuse astrocytoma.Surgery plus radiation therapy and chemotherapy for patients with higher grade tumors.Depending on the degree of anaplasia, pineal astrocytomas vary in prognoses. Higher grades have worse prognoses. Pilocytic

    7. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Adult Brain Tumors

      An adult brain tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain. There are many types of brain and spinal cord tumors. The tumors are formed by the abnormal growth of cells and may begin in different parts of the brain or spinal cord. Together,the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). The tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant ...

    8. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000614165-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    9. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    10. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Low-Risk Neuroblastoma

      Low-risk neuroblastoma represents nearly one-half of all newly diagnosed patients. The success of prior Children's Oncology Group (COG) clinical trials has contributed to the continued reduction in therapy for select patients with neuroblastoma.The COG low-risk group assignment criteria are described in Table 6. Table 6. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma Low-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).c INSS stage

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