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    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    2. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

      Recurrent childhood brain stem glioma is a tumor that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. If childhood brain stem glioma recurs, it may do so many years after initial treatment. The tumor may come back in the brain or in other parts of the central nervous system.

    3. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of neuroblastoma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    4. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Neuroblastic Tumors

      Neuroblastomas are classified as one of the small, round, blue cell tumors of childhood. They are a heterogenous group of tumors composed of cellular aggregates with different degrees of differentiation, from mature ganglioneuromas to less mature ganglioneuroblastomas to immature neuroblastomas, reflecting the varying malignant potential of these tumors.[1]There are two cellular classification systems for neuroblastoma.International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) System: The INPC system involves evaluation of tumor specimens obtained before therapy for the following morphologic features:[2,3,4,5]Amount of Schwannian stroma.Degree of neuroblastic maturation.Mitosis-karyorrhexis index of the neuroblastic cells.Favorable and unfavorable prognoses are defined on the basis of these histologic parameters and patient age. The prognostic significance of this classification system, and of related systems using similar criteria, has

    5. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Ependymoma

      Childhood ependymoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. The brain controls vital functions such as memory and learning,the senses (hearing,sight,smell,taste,and touch),and emotion. The spinal cord is made up of bundles of nerve fibers that connect the brain with nerves in most parts of the body. About 1 in 11 childhood brain ...

    6. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

      Many of the improvements in survival in childhood cancer have been made as a result of clinical trials that have attempted to improve on the best available, accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare new therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new treatment and comparing the results with those that were previously obtained with existing therapy. Because of the relative rarity of cancer in children, all patients with brain tumors should be considered for entry into a clinical trial. To determine and implement optimum treatment, treatment planning by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors is required. Radiation therapy (including 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy) of pediatric brain tumors is technically very demanding and should be carried out in centers that have

    7. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of pituitary tumors. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    8. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      The goals of treatment of pituitary adenomas include normalization of hormonal secretion (i.e., normalization of hypersecretion and improvement in hypofunction) and resolution or cessation of the progression of neurological defects. Standard treatments for patients with pituitary tumors include:Surgery.Radiation therapy.Medical therapy.A combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and medical therapy.The treatment of choice must be individualized and is dictated by the type of tumor, the nature of the excessive hormonal expression, and whether or not the tumor extends into the brain around the pituitary.[1,2]The transsphenoidal microsurgical approach to a pituitary lesion is the most widely employed surgical approach to pituitary lesions and represents a major development in the safe surgical treatment of both hormonally active and nonfunctioning tumors.[3,4,5] This approach is often successful in debulking tumors, even those that have a significant suprasellar extension. A

    9. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 12 / 2014)

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    10. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Childhood Brain Tumors

      For more information about childhood brain tumors, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ Brain TumorsPediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC)For more childhood cancer information and other general cancer resources, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerChildhood CancersCureSearch for Children's CancerLate Effects of Treatment for Childhood CancerAdolescents and Young Adults with CancerYoung People with Cancer: A Handbook for ParentsCare for Children and Adolescents with CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation for Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

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