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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    The plan for cancer treatment depends on whether the tumor is in one area of the brain or has spread throughout the brain.Staging is the process used to find out how much cancer there is and if cancer has spread. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. There is no standard staging system for childhood brain stem glioma. Instead, the plan for cancer treatment depends on whether the tumor is diffuse (spread throughout the brain) or focal (in one area of the brain):Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is a tumor that has spread widely throughout the brain stem. A biopsy is usually not done for this type of brain stem glioma and it is not removed by surgery. A diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is usually diagnosed using imaging studies.Focal or low-grade glioma is a tumor that is in one area of the brain stem. A biopsy may be done and the tumor removed during the same surgery.The information from tests and procedures done to detect (find) childhood brain stem glioma is

  2. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to this Summary (08 / 07 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General InformationAdded text to state that the presence of the H3F3A K27M mutation occurs exclusively in diffuse high-grade pediatric astrocytomas (cited Gielen et al. as reference 35).Treatment of Childhood Low-Grade AstrocytomasAdded Gnekow et al. as reference 28.Added text to state that a multicenter, phase III, placebo-controlled trial of 117 patients confirmed these earlier findings; 35% of the patients in the everolimus group had at least a 50% reduction in the size of the SEGA, versus no reduction in the placebo group (cited Franz et al. as reference 54 and level of evidence 1iDiv).Treatment of Recurrent Childhood Low-Grade AstrocytomasAdded text to state that surveillance imaging will frequently identify asymptomatic recurrences (cited Udaka et al. as reference 4).Added Gnekow et al.

  3. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    The Children's Oncology Group (COG) high-risk group assignment criteria are described in Table 8.Table 8. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma High-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, DI = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).c INSS stage 2A/2B symptomatic patients with spinal cord compression, neurologic deficits, or other symptoms are treated with immediate chemotherapy for four cycles.d INSS stage 3 or stage 4 patients with clinical symptoms

  4. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    Many of the improvements in survival in childhood cancer have been made as a result of clinical trials that have attempted to improve on the best available, accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare new therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new treatment and comparing the results with those that were previously obtained with existing therapy. Because of the relative rarity of cancer in children, all patients with brain tumors should be considered for entry into a clinical trial. To determine and implement optimum treatment, treatment planning by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors is required. Radiation therapy (including 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy) of pediatric brain tumors is technically very demanding and should be carried out in centers that have

  5. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  6. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to this Summary (09 / 06 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.This summary was reformatted.This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  7. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Approach to Care for Children with Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Important concepts that should be understood by those treating and caring for a child who has a brain tumor or spinal cord tumor include the following: The cause of most childhood brain tumors remains unknown.[1]Selection of an appropriate therapy can only occur if the correct diagnosis is made and the stage of the disease is accurately determined.Children with primary brain or spinal cord tumors represent a major therapy challenge that, for optimal results, requires the coordinated efforts of pediatric specialists in fields such as neurosurgery, neuropathology, radiation oncology, pediatric oncology, neuro-oncology, neurology, rehabilitation, neuroradiology, endocrinology, and psychology, who have special expertise in the care of patients with these diseases.[2,3] For example, radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically demanding and should be performed in centers that have experience in this area.For most childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, the optimal treatment

  8. Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    The goals of treatment of pituitary adenomas include normalization of hormonal secretion (i.e., normalization of hypersecretion and improvement in hypofunction) and resolution or cessation of the progression of neurological defects. Standard treatments for patients with pituitary tumors include:Surgery.Radiation therapy.Medical therapy.A combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and medical therapy.The treatment of choice must be individualized and is dictated by the type of tumor, the nature of the excessive hormonal expression, and whether or not the tumor extends into the brain around the pituitary.[1,2]The transsphenoidal microsurgical approach to a pituitary lesion is the most widely employed surgical approach to pituitary lesions and represents a major development in the safe surgical treatment of both hormonally active and nonfunctioning tumors.[3,4,5] This approach is often successful in debulking tumors, even those that have a significant suprasellar extension. A

  9. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  10. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through

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