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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000257997-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview

    2. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Low-Risk Neuroblastoma

      Low-risk neuroblastoma represents nearly one-half of all newly diagnosed patients. The success of prior Children's Oncology Group (COG) clinical trials has contributed to the continued reduction in therapy for select patients with neuroblastoma.The COG low-risk group assignment criteria are described in Table 6. Table 6. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma Low-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).c INSS stage

    3. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

      There is no generally applied staging system for childhood brain stem gliomas.[1] It is uncommon for these tumors to have spread outside the brain stem itself at the time of initial diagnosis. Spread of malignant brain stem tumors is usually contiguous; metastasis via the subarachnoid space has been reported in up to 30% of cases diagnosed antemortem.[2] Such dissemination may occur prior to local relapse but usually occurs simultaneously with or after local disease relapse.[3]The less common tumors of the midbrain, especially in the tectal plate region, have been viewed separately from those of the brain stem because they are more likely to be low grade and have a greater likelihood of long-term survival (approximately 80% 5-year progression-free survival vs. <10% for tumors of the pons).[1,4,5,6,7,8] Similarly, dorsally exophytic and cervicomedullary tumors are generally low grade and have a relatively favorable prognosis. Children younger than 3 years may have a more favorable

    4. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    5. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Adult Brain Tumors

      There is no standard staging system for adult brain and spinal cord tumors.The extent or spread of cancer is usually described as stages. There is no standard staging system for brain and spinal cord tumors. Brain tumors that begin in the brain may spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord, but they rarely spread to other parts of the body. Treatment of brain and spinal cord tumors is based the following:The type of cell in which the tumor began.Where the tumor formed in the brain or spinal cord.The amount of cancer left after surgery.The grade of the tumor.Treatment of brain tumors that have spread to the brain from other parts of the body is based on the number of tumors in the brain.Imaging tests may be repeated after surgery to help plan more treatment.Some of the tests and procedures used to diagnose a brain or spinal cord tumor may be repeated after treatment to find out how much tumor is left.

    6. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Histopathologic Classification of Childhood Ependymal Tumors

      In the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors, ependymal tumors are classified into four main subtypes:[1]Subependymoma (WHO Grade I).Myxopapillary ependymoma (WHO Grade I).Ependymoma (WHO Grade II). Variants include cellular, papillary, tanycytic, clear cell, and mixed.Anaplastic (also known as malignant) ependymoma (WHO Grade III).The subependymoma is a slow-growing benign neoplasm, typically attached to the ventricle wall, and is composed of glial tumor cell clusters embedded in a fibrillary matrix. The myxopapillary ependymoma arises almost exclusively in the location of the conus medullaris, cauda equina, and filum terminale of the spinal cord, and is characterized histologically by tumor cells arranged in a papillary manner around vascularized myxoid stromal cores.The ependymoma, which is considered a Grade II neoplasm originating from the walls of the ventricles or from the spinal canal, is composed of neoplastic ependymal cells.

    7. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 24 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

    8. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Neuroblastoma

      The Children's Oncology Group (COG) intermediate-risk group assignment criteria are described in Table 7. Table 7. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma Intermediate-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, DI = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).c INSS stage 3 or stage 4 patients with clinical symptoms as listed above receive immediate chemotherapy.d INSS stage 4S infants with favorable biology and clinical symptoms are treated with immediate chemotherapy until

    9. Spinocerebellar Ataxia with Axonal Neuropathy

      SCAN1 is a neurodegenerative disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1) is characterized by late childhood-onset of a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia,followed by areflexia and signs of peripheral neuropathy. Gaze nystagmus and cerebellar dysarthria usually develop after the onset of ataxic gait. As the disease ...

    10. Medulloblastoma

      Important It is possible that the main title of the report Medulloblastoma is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...

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