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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Newly Diagnosed Childhood CNS Atypical Teratoid / Rhabdoid Tumor

      There is no standard treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Combinations of treatments are used for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.Because atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is fast-growing, a combination of treatments is usually given. Most treatments include both surgery and chemotherapy. Treatments for AT/RT may include combinations of the following:Surgery.Chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant.Clinical trials of new treatments should be considered for patients with newly diagnosed atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is

    2. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 07 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.

    3. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Type of Adult Brain Tumor

      A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Astrocytic TumorsBrain Stem GliomasTreatment of brain stem gliomas may include the following:Radiation therapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with adult brain stem glioma. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Pineal Astrocytic TumorsTreatment of pineal astrocytic tumors may include the following:Surgery and radiation therapy. For high-grade tumors, chemotherapy may also be given.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now

    4. Arachnoid Cysts

      Important It is possible that the main title of the report Arachnoid Cysts is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...

    5. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Spinal Cord Tumors

      Treatment of spinal cord tumors may include the following:Surgery to remove the tumor.Radiation therapy.Chemotherapy (systemic and/or intrathecal), if the tumor has spread to the leptomeninges (leptomeningeal carcinomatosis). Radiation therapy may also be given.Supportive care may be given for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.A clinical trial of a new treatment.

    6. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Neuroblastoma Cancer

      Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in nerve tissue.Neuroblastoma often begins in the nerve tissue of the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney, in the back of the upper abdomen. The adrenal glands make important hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and the way the body reacts to stress. Neuroblastoma may also begin in the abdomen, chest, spinal cord, or in nerve tissue near the spine in the neck.Anatomy of the female urinary system showing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.Neuroblastoma most often begins during early childhood, usually in children younger than 5 years of age.See the PDQ summary on Neuroblastoma Treatment for more

    7. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about neuroblastoma screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    8. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Approach to Care for Children with Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

      Important concepts that should be understood by those treating and caring for a child who has a brain tumor or spinal cord tumor include the following: The cause of most childhood brain tumors remains unknown.[1]Selection of an appropriate therapy can only occur if the correct diagnosis is made and the stage of the disease is accurately determined.Children with primary brain or spinal cord tumors represent a major therapy challenge that, for optimal results, requires the coordinated efforts of pediatric specialists in fields such as neurosurgery, neuropathology, radiation oncology, pediatric oncology, neuro-oncology, neurology, rehabilitation, neuroradiology, endocrinology, and psychology, who have special expertise in the care of patients with these diseases.[2,3] For example, radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically demanding and should be performed in centers that have experience in this area.For most childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, the optimal treatment

    9. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Stage 4S Neuroblastoma

      Most cases of stage 4S neuroblastoma do not require therapy. However, if bulk disease is causing organ compromise and risk of death, low-dose to moderate-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy is used. Eight percent to 10% of these patients will have MYCN amplification and are treated with high-risk protocols.[1] (Refer to the Treatment of High-Risk Neuroblastoma section of this summary for more information about the treatment of stage 4S high-risk neuroblastoma.)Table 9. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Neuroblastoma Stage 4S Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 StudiesaINSS StageAgeMYCNStatusINPC ClassificationDNA PloidybRisk GroupINPC = International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification; INSS = International Neuroblastoma Staging System.a The COG-P9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, = 1 is

    10. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Neuroblastoma

      Staging EvaluationA thorough evaluation for metastatic disease is performed before therapy initiation. The following studies are typically performed:[1]Metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scanBefore resection of the primary tumor, bone involvement is assessed by mIBG scan, which is applicable to all sites of disease, and by technetium-99 scan if the results of the mIBG scan are negative or unavailable.[2,3] Approximately 90% of neuroblastomas will be mIBG avid. It has a sensitivity and specificity of 90% to 99% and is equally distributed between primary and metastatic sites.[4] Although iodine 128 (123 I) has a shorter half-life, it is preferred over131 I because of its lower radiation dose, better quality images, less thyroid toxicity, and lower cost. Imaging with 123 I-mIBG is optimal for identifying soft tissue and bony metastases and is superior to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computerized tomography (PET-CT) in a prospective comparison.[5] Baseline mIBG

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