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    Brain Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

    1. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood brain stem glioma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a

    2. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to this Summary (06 / 20 / 2014)

      To determine and implement optimum management, treatment is often guided by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors. The therapy for both children and adults with supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Outcome in high-grade gliomas occurring in childhood may be more favorable than that in adults, but it is not clear if this difference is caused by biologic variations in tumor characteristics, therapies used, tumor resectability, or other factors that are presently not understood.[1] The ability to obtain a complete resection is associated with a better prognosis.[2] Radiation therapy is administered to a field that widely encompasses the entire tumor. The radiation therapy dose to the tumor bed is usually at least 54 Gy. Despite such therapy, overall survival rates remain poor. Similarly poor survival is seen in children with spinal cord primaries and children with

    3. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (03 / 19 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Stage Information for Pituitary TumorsUpdated staging information for 2010 (cited Edge et al. as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    4. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000574573-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    5. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage Information and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

      There is no uniformly accepted staging system for childhood brain tumors. These tumors are classified and treated based on their histology and location within the brain (Table 1).Table 1. The Staging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Tumors According to Type of Tumor or Pathologic SubtypeTumor TypePathologic SubtypeStaging and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent DiseaseCNS = central nervous system.Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin  –Low-Grade AstrocytomasDiffuse fibrillary astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentGemistocytic astrocytomaOligoastrocytomaOligodendrogliomaPilocytic astrocytomaPilomyxoid astrocytomaPleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaProtoplasmic astrocytomaSubependymal giant cell astrocytoma–High-Grade AstrocytomasAnaplastic astrocytomaChildhood Astrocytomas TreatmentAnaplastic oligoastrocytomaAnaplastic oligodendrogliomaGiant cell glioblastomaGlioblastomaGliomatosis cerebriGliosarcoma Brain Stem

    6. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Myxopapillary Ependymoma

      Recurrence is not uncommon in both benign and malignant childhood brain tumors and may develop many years after initial treatment.[1] For ependymoma, late recurrence beyond 10 to 15 years has been reported.[2,3] Disease generally recurs at the primary tumor site, even in children with malignant ependymomas.[4,5] Systemic relapse is extremely rare. At time of relapse, a complete evaluation for extent of recurrence is indicated for all patients. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the extent of the tumor, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the recurrent lesion, and the clinical picture. Patients with recurrent ependymomas who have not previously received radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy should be considered for treatment with these modalities.[6][Level of evidence: 3iiiB] In addition, patients may be candidates for focal retreatment with various radiation modalities, including stereotactic

    7. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

      A childhood brain or spinal cord tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. There are many types of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. The tumors are formed by the abnormal growth of cells and may begin in different areas of the brain or spinal cord. Tumors may be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Together,the brain and ...

    8. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    9. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Adult Brain Tumors

      SurgeryRe-resection of recurrent brain tumors is used in some patients. However, the majority of patients do not qualify because of a deteriorating condition or technically inoperable tumors. The evidence is limited to noncontrolled studies and case series on patients who are healthy enough and have small enough tumors to technically debulk. The impact of reoperation versus patient selection on survival is not known.Localized ChemotherapyCarmustine wafers have been investigated in the setting of recurrent malignant gliomas, but the impact on survival is less clear than at the time of initial diagnosis and resection. In a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 222 patients with recurrent malignant primary brain tumors requiring reoperation were randomly assigned to receive implanted carmustine wafers or placebo biodegradable wafers.[1] Approximately half of the patients had received prior systemic chemotherapy. The two treatment groups were well balanced at baseline.

    10. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062849-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Neuroblastoma Screening

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