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Brain Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Brain Cancer

  1. Changes to This Summary (07 / 23 / 2010)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Evidence of BenefitAdded text about a study that compared neuroblastoma incidence and mortality rates in Japan in three cohorts: children born before screening between 1980 and 1983, and those born during screening between 1986 and 1989, and between 1990 and 1998 (cited Hiyama et al. as reference 32).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  2. About This PDQ Summary

    PURPOSE OF THIS SUMMARY This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive,peer-reviewed,evidence-based information about the treatment of neuroblastoma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. REVIEWERS AND UPDATES ...

  3. Classification of Adult Brain Tumors

    This classification is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.[1] The WHO approach incorporates and interrelates morphology, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and immunologic markers in an attempt to construct a cellular classification that is universally applicable and prognostically valid. Earlier attempts to develop a TNM-based classification were dropped: tumor size (T) is less relevant than tumor histology and location, nodal status (N) does not apply because the brain and spinal cord have no lymphatics, and metastatic spread (M) rarely applies because most patients with CNS neoplasms do not live long enough to develop metastatic disease.[2]The WHO grading of CNS tumors establishes a malignancy scale based on histologic features of the tumor.[3] The histologic

  4. Treatment Option Overview

    Many of the improvements in survival in childhood cancer have been made as a result of clinical trials that have attempted to improve on the best available,accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare new therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new ...

  5. Changes to This Summary (02 / 15 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. General Information About Adult Brain TumorsUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  6. Growth Hormone-Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Growth Hormone (GH)-Producing Pituitary TumorsStandard treatment options for GH-producing pituitary tumors include the following:Surgery (usually a transsphenoidal approach).Dopamine analogues, such as bromocriptine.Somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide. The GH-receptor antagonist, pegvisomant.[1,2]Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.Treatment for patients with acromegaly includes surgical, radiation, and medical therapies.[3] Treatment will depend on the size and extent of the tumor and the need for rapid cessation of hormone function that results in serious clinical sequelae (i.e., hypertension and cardiomyopathy). Microadenomectomy or macroadenoma decompression is approached transsphenoidally in most patients. Increasingly, endoscopic surgery is used to allow the entire surgical field to be viewed and to allow tumor tissue that would otherwise be inaccessible with rigid instruments to be safely resected. Complete return of GH

  7. Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Different types of treatment are available for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment),and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information ...

  8. Significance

    Incidence and Mortality About 7% of all malignancies in children under the age of 15 are neuroblastomas. About one quarter of cancers in the first year of life are neuroblastomas,making this the most frequent histological type of infant cancer.[ 1,2 ] The incidence rate of the disease in children younger than 1 year is about 35 per million but declines rapidly with age to about 1 per million ...

  9. Cellular Classification of Pituitary Tumors

    Pituitary adenomas can be classified according to staining affinities of the cell cytoplasm, size, endocrine activity, histologic characteristics, hormone production and contents, ultrastructural features, granularity of the cell cytoplasm, cellular composition, cytogenesis, and growth pattern.[1] Recent classifications, however, omit criteria based on tinctorial stains (i.e., acidophilic, basophilic, and chromophobic) because of the poor correlation between staining affinities of the cell cytoplasm and other pathological features of pituitary tumors, such as the type of hormone produced and cellular derivation.[1,2]A unifying pituitary adenoma classification incorporates the histological, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopic studies of the tumor cells, and stresses the importance of hormone production, cellular composition, and cytogenesis. This classification emphasizes the structure-function relationship and attempts to correlate morphologic features with secretory

  10. Treatment Options for Childhood Ependymoma

    Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma Newly diagnosed childhood ependymoma is a tumor that has not been treated. The patient may have received drugs or treatment,however,to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor. Initial treatment for newly diagnosed childhood ependymoma is usually surgery,with or without additional treatment. After surgery,treatment depends on the age of the child,the ...

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