Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma
Recurrence may take place in both benign and malignant childhood visual pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, and may develop many years after initial treatment. Recurrent disease is usually at the primary tumor site, though widely disseminated disease to other intracranial sites and to the spinal leptomeninges has been documented. At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation to determine the extent of the relapse is indicated. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion, and the clinical picture.
If patients have not received radiation therapy, local radiation therapy is the usual treatment. For those children with low-grade glioma for whom radiation therapy is indicated, conformal radiotherapeutic approaches appear effective and offer the potential for reducing the acute and long-term toxicities associated with this modality.[3,4] In patients treated with surgery alone whose disease progresses, however, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are options. If recurrence takes place after irradiation, chemotherapy should be considered. Chemotherapy may result in relatively long-term disease control.[5,6] Entry into studies of novel therapeutic approaches should be considered for patients with recurrent brain tumors.[7,8] Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with recurrent childhood visual pathway and hypothalamic glioma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
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- Jenkin D, Angyalfi S, Becker L, et al.: Optic glioma in children: surveillance, resection, or irradiation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 25 (2): 215-25, 1993.
- Merchant TE, Zhu Y, Thompson SJ, et al.: Preliminary results from a Phase II trail of conformal radiation therapy for pediatric patients with localised low-grade astrocytoma and ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52 (2): 325-32, 2002.
- Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, et al.: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61 (2): 374-9, 2005.
- Packer RJ, Lange B, Ater J, et al.: Carboplatin and vincristine for recurrent and newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas of childhood. J Clin Oncol 11 (5): 850-6, 1993.
- Gnekow AK, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, et al.: Low grade chiasmatic-hypothalamic glioma-carboplatin and vincristin chemotherapy effectively defers radiotherapy within a comprehensive treatment strategy -- report from the multicenter treatment study for children and adolescents with a low grade glioma -- HIT-LGG 1996 -- of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH). Klin Padiatr 216 (6): 331-42, 2004 Nov-Dec.
- Chamberlain MC, Grafe MR: Recurrent chiasmatic-hypothalamic glioma treated with oral etoposide. J Clin Oncol 13 (8): 2072-6, 1995.
- Gaynon PS, Ettinger LJ, Baum ES, et al.: Carboplatin in childhood brain tumors. A Children's Cancer Study Group Phase II trial. Cancer 66 (12): 2465-9, 1990.