Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Brain Stem Glioma
The following symptoms and others may be caused by a brain stem glioma. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Check with a doctor if your child has any of the following problems:
- Loss of balance and trouble walking.
- Vision and hearing problems.
- Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Unusual sleepiness or change in energy level.
Tests that examine the brain are used to detect (find) childhood brain stem glioma.
The following imaging tests may be used:
- CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) with gadolinium: A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the brain and spinal cord. A substance called gadolinium is injected into a vein. The gadolinium collects around the cancer cells so they show up brighter in the picture. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
Some childhood brain stem gliomas are diagnosed and removed in surgery.
If the tumor has not spread widely within the brain stem or has not been diagnosed by MRI, a biopsy may be done by removing part of the skull and using a needle to remove a sample of the brain tissue. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells. If cancer cells are found, the doctor will remove as much tumor as safely possible during the same surgery.
Craniotomy: An opening is made in the skull and a piece of the skull is removed to show part of the brain.
Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on:
- The type of brain stem glioma.
- Where the tumor is found in the brain and if it has spread within the brain stem.
- Whether or not the child has a condition called neurofibromatosis type 1.
- Whether the tumor has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).