Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier
WebMD

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started
My Medicine
WebMD

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion
    WebMD

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community
    WebMD

    Community

    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Brain Cancer Health Center

Font Size
A
A
A

Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information and Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

Presently, there is no uniformly accepted staging system for most childhood brain tumors. These tumors are classified and treated based on their histology and location within the brain (see Table below). However, with advances in molecular data, it is conceivable that genomic factors will refine classification approaches for certain groups of tumors, such as medulloblastomas [1,2] and low-grade gliomas.[3,4]

Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Tumor Type and Its Related PDQ Treatment Summary

Tumor Type Pathologic Subtype Related PDQ Treatment Summary
CNS = central nervous system; WHO = World Health Organization.
Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin
-Low-Grade Astrocytomas Diffuse fibrillary astrocytoma Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment
Gemistocytic astrocytoma
Oligoastrocytoma
Oligodendroglioma
Pilocytic astrocytoma
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
Protoplasmic astrocytoma
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
-High-Grade Astrocytomas Anaplastic astrocytoma Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment
Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma
Giant cell glioblastoma
Glioblastoma
Gliomatosis cerebri
Gliosarcoma
Brain Stem Glioma
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment
Focal or low-grade brain stem glioma
CNS Embryonal Tumors
-Medulloblastomas Anaplastic Childhood CNS Embryonal Tumors Treatment
Classic
Desmoplastic/nodular
Large cell
Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity
-CNS Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNETs) CNS ganglioneuroblastoma
CNS neuroblastoma
Ependymoblastoma
Medulloepithelioma
-Pineal Parenchymal Tumors Pineoblastoma
-CNS Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Childhood CNS Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment
CNS Germ Cell Tumors
-Germinomas Childhood CNS Germ Cell Tumors Treatment
-Teratomas Immature teratoma
Mature teratoma
Teratoma with malignant transformation
-Non-Germinomatous Germ Cell Tumors Choriocarcinoma
Embryonal carcinoma
Mixed germ cell tumor
Yolk sac tumor
Craniopharyngioma Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment
Ependymoma
Subependymoma (WHO Grade I) Childhood Ependymoma Treatment
Myxopapillary ependymoma (WHO Grade I)
Ependymoma (WHO Grade II)
Anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III)
Tumors of the Choroid Plexus

Recurrence is not uncommon in both low-grade and malignant childhood brain tumors and may occur many years after initial treatment. Disease may occur at the primary tumor site or, especially in malignant tumors, at noncontiguous central nervous system (CNS) sites. Systemic relapse is rare but may occur. At time of recurrence, a complete evaluation for extent of relapse is indicated for all malignant tumors and, at times, for lower-grade lesions. Biopsy or surgical re-resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse; other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The determination of the need for surgical intervention must be individualized based on the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the lesion, and the clinical picture.

1 | 2
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

doctor and patient
How to know when it’s time for home care
doctory with x-ray
Here are 10 to know.
 
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
 
Malignant Gliomas
Article
Pets Improve Your Health
SLIDESHOW
 
Headache Emergencies
Video
life after a brain tumor
VIDEO
 

Would you consider trying alternative or complementary therapies?