Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain.
Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children younger than three years of age, although it can occur in older children and adults.
About half of these tumors form in the cerebellum or brain stem. The cerebellum is the part of the brain that controls movement, balance, and posture. The brain stem controls breathing, heart rate, and the nerves and muscles used in seeing, hearing, walking, talking, and eating. AT/RT may also be found in other parts of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
|Anatomy of the brain, showing the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and other parts of the brain.||Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), and other parts of the brain.|
This summary describes the treatment of primarybrain tumors (tumors that begin in the brain). Treatment for metastatic brain tumors, which are tumors formed by cancercells that begin in other parts of the body and spread to the brain, is not discussed in this summary. For more information see the PDQ summary on Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview about the different types of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors.
Brain tumors can occur in both children and adults; however, treatment for children may be different than treatment for adults. See the PDQ treatment summary on Adult Brain Tumors for more information.
Certain genetic changes may increase the risk of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
Anything that increases the risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Parents who think their child may be at risk for cancer should discuss this with their child's doctor.
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor may be linked to a change in a tumor suppressor gene called SMARCB1. This type of gene makes a protein that helps control cell growth. Changes in the DNA of tumor suppressor genes like SMARCB1 may lead to cancer.
Changes in the SMARCB1 gene may be inherited (passed on from parents to offspring). When the SMARCB1 gene change is inherited, tumors may form in two parts of the body at the same time (for example, in the brain and the kidney). If AT/RT is diagnosed, genetic counseling (a discussion with a trained professional about inherited diseases and a possible need for gene testing) may be recommended.