Skip to content

Brain Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

Table 3. Childhood Astrocytomas and Other Tumors of Glial Origin and Preferential Central Nervous System (CNS) Location continued...

Oligodendrogliomas are rare in children and have a relatively favorable prognosis, with the exception of children younger than 3 years who have less than a gross total resection.[49]

High-grade astrocytomas

High-grade astrocytomas are often locally invasive and extensive and tend to occur above the tentorium.[40,43] Spread via the subarachnoid space may occur. Metastasis outside of the CNS has been reported but is extremely infrequent until multiple local relapses have occurred. Biologic markers, such as p53 overexpression and mutation status, may be useful predictors of outcome in patients with high-grade gliomas.[4,50,51] MIB-1 labeling index is predictive of outcome in childhood malignant brain tumors. Both histologic classification and proliferative activity evaluation have been shown to be independently associated with survival.[52] Although high-grade astrocytoma carries a generally poor prognosis in younger patients, those with anaplastic astrocytoma and those in whom a gross total resection is possible may fare better.[44,53,54]

Disease Presentation

Presenting symptoms for childhood astrocytomas depend not only on CNS location, but also size of tumor, rate of growth, and chronologic and developmental age of the child.

References:

  1. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, et al., eds.: WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. 4th ed. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2007.
  2. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, et al.: The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol 114 (2): 97-109, 2007.
  3. Smith MA, Seibel NL, Altekruse SF, et al.: Outcomes for children and adolescents with cancer: challenges for the twenty-first century. J Clin Oncol 28 (15): 2625-34, 2010.
  4. Komotar RJ, Burger PC, Carson BS, et al.: Pilocytic and pilomyxoid hypothalamic/chiasmatic astrocytomas. Neurosurgery 54 (1): 72-9; discussion 79-80, 2004.
  5. Tibbetts KM, Emnett RJ, Gao F, et al.: Histopathologic predictors of pilocytic astrocytoma event-free survival. Acta Neuropathol 117 (6): 657-65, 2009.
  6. Rodriguez FJ, Scheithauer BW, Burger PC, et al.: Anaplasia in pilocytic astrocytoma predicts aggressive behavior. Am J Surg Pathol 34 (2): 147-60, 2010.
  7. Margraf LR, Gargan L, Butt Y, et al.: Proliferative and metabolic markers in incompletely excised pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas--an assessment of 3 new variables in predicting clinical outcome. Neuro Oncol 13 (7): 767-74, 2011.
  8. Fried I, Hawkins C, Scheinemann K, et al.: Favorable outcome with conservative treatment for children with low grade brainstem tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 58 (4): 556-60, 2012.
  9. Fisher PG, Breiter SN, Carson BS, et al.: A clinicopathologic reappraisal of brain stem tumor classification. Identification of pilocystic astrocytoma and fibrillary astrocytoma as distinct entities. Cancer 89 (7): 1569-76, 2000.
  10. Listernick R, Darling C, Greenwald M, et al.: Optic pathway tumors in children: the effect of neurofibromatosis type 1 on clinical manifestations and natural history. J Pediatr 127 (5): 718-22, 1995.
  11. Rosai J, Sobin LH, eds.: Dysgenetic syndromes. In: Rosai J, Sobin LH, eds.: Atlas of Tumor Pathology. Third Series. Washington, DC : Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1994., pp 379-90.
  12. Allen JC: Initial management of children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors and the modifying role of neurofibromatosis-1. Pediatr Neurosurg 32 (3): 154-62, 2000.
  13. Molloy PT, Bilaniuk LT, Vaughan SN, et al.: Brainstem tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1: a distinct clinical entity. Neurology 45 (10): 1897-902, 1995.
  14. Bar EE, Lin A, Tihan T, et al.: Frequent gains at chromosome 7q34 involving BRAF in pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 67 (9): 878-87, 2008.
  15. Forshew T, Tatevossian RG, Lawson AR, et al.: Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas. J Pathol 218 (2): 172-81, 2009.
  16. Jones DT, Kocialkowski S, Liu L, et al.: Tandem duplication producing a novel oncogenic BRAF fusion gene defines the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas. Cancer Res 68 (21): 8673-7, 2008.
  17. Jones DT, Kocialkowski S, Liu L, et al.: Oncogenic RAF1 rearrangement and a novel BRAF mutation as alternatives to KIAA1549:BRAF fusion in activating the MAPK pathway in pilocytic astrocytoma. Oncogene 28 (20): 2119-23, 2009.
  18. Pfister S, Janzarik WG, Remke M, et al.: BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas. J Clin Invest 118 (5): 1739-49, 2008.
  19. Korshunov A, Meyer J, Capper D, et al.: Combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 distinguishes pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma. Acta Neuropathol 118 (3): 401-5, 2009.
  20. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Nikiforov Y, et al.: Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol 119 (5): 641-9, 2010.
  21. Yu J, Deshmukh H, Gutmann RJ, et al.: Alterations of BRAF and HIPK2 loci predominate in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurology 73 (19): 1526-31, 2009.
  22. Lin A, Rodriguez FJ, Karajannis MA, et al.: BRAF alterations in primary glial and glioneuronal neoplasms of the central nervous system with identification of 2 novel KIAA1549:BRAF fusion variants. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 71 (1): 66-72, 2012.
  23. Hawkins C, Walker E, Mohamed N, et al.: BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion predicts better clinical outcome in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma. Clin Cancer Res 17 (14): 4790-8, 2011.
  24. Janzarik WG, Kratz CP, Loges NT, et al.: Further evidence for a somatic KRAS mutation in a pilocytic astrocytoma. Neuropediatrics 38 (2): 61-3, 2007.
  25. Horbinski C, Nikiforova MN, Hagenkord JM, et al.: Interplay among BRAF, p16, p53, and MIB1 in pediatric low-grade gliomas. Neuro Oncol 14 (6): 777-89, 2012.
  26. Dougherty MJ, Santi M, Brose MS, et al.: Activating mutations in BRAF characterize a spectrum of pediatric low-grade gliomas. Neuro Oncol 12 (7): 621-30, 2010.
  27. Dias-Santagata D, Lam Q, Vernovsky K, et al.: BRAF V600E mutations are common in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PLoS One 6 (3): e17948, 2011.
  28. Schindler G, Capper D, Meyer J, et al.: Analysis of BRAF V600E mutation in 1,320 nervous system tumors reveals high mutation frequencies in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, ganglioglioma and extra-cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma. Acta Neuropathol 121 (3): 397-405, 2011.
  29. Paugh BS, Qu C, Jones C, et al.: Integrated molecular genetic profiling of pediatric high-grade gliomas reveals key differences with the adult disease. J Clin Oncol 28 (18): 3061-8, 2010.
  30. Bax DA, Mackay A, Little SE, et al.: A distinct spectrum of copy number aberrations in pediatric high-grade gliomas. Clin Cancer Res 16 (13): 3368-77, 2010.
  31. Ward SJ, Karakoula K, Phipps KP, et al.: Cytogenetic analysis of paediatric astrocytoma using comparative genomic hybridisation and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation. J Neurooncol 98 (3): 305-18, 2010.
  32. Pollack IF, Hamilton RL, Sobol RW, et al.: IDH1 mutations are common in malignant gliomas arising in adolescents: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Childs Nerv Syst 27 (1): 87-94, 2011.
  33. Schwartzentruber J, Korshunov A, Liu XY, et al.: Driver mutations in histone H3.3 and chromatin remodelling genes in paediatric glioblastoma. Nature 482 (7384): 226-31, 2012.
  34. Wu G, Broniscer A, McEachron TA, et al.: Somatic histone H3 alterations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and non-brainstem glioblastomas. Nat Genet 44 (3): 251-3, 2012.
  35. Gielen GH, Gessi M, Hammes J, et al.: H3F3A K27M mutation in pediatric CNS tumors: a marker for diffuse high-grade astrocytomas. Am J Clin Pathol 139 (3): 345-9, 2013.
  36. Khuong-Quang DA, Buczkowicz P, Rakopoulos P, et al.: K27M mutation in histone H3.3 defines clinically and biologically distinct subgroups of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Acta Neuropathol 124 (3): 439-47, 2012.
  37. Suri V, Jha P, Agarwal S, et al.: Molecular profile of oligodendrogliomas in young patients. Neuro Oncol 13 (10): 1099-106, 2011.
  38. Rorke-Adams LB, Portnoy H: Long-term survival of an infant with gliomatosis cerebelli. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2 (5): 346-50, 2008.
  39. Armstrong GT, Phillips PC, Rorke-Adams LB, et al.: Gliomatosis cerebri: 20 years of experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Cancer 107 (7): 1597-606, 2006.
  40. Pollack IF: Brain tumors in children. N Engl J Med 331 (22): 1500-7, 1994.
  41. Hoffman HJ, Berger MS, Becker LE: Cerebellar astrocytomas. In: Deutsch M, ed.: Management of Childhood Brain Tumors. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990, pp 441-56.
  42. Fisher PG, Tihan T, Goldthwaite PT, et al.: Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer 51 (2): 245-50, 2008.
  43. Pfister S, Witt O: Pediatric gliomas. Recent Results Cancer Res 171: 67-81, 2009.
  44. Qaddoumi I, Sultan I, Gajjar A: Outcome and prognostic features in pediatric gliomas: a review of 6212 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Cancer 115 (24): 5761-70, 2009.
  45. Wisoff JH, Sanford RA, Heier LA, et al.: Primary neurosurgery for pediatric low-grade gliomas: a prospective multi-institutional study from the Children's Oncology Group. Neurosurgery 68 (6): 1548-54; discussion 1554-5, 2011.
  46. von Hornstein S, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, et al.: Impact of chemotherapy on disseminated low-grade glioma in children and adolescents: report from the HIT-LGG 1996 trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56 (7): 1046-54, 2011.
  47. Mazloom A, Hodges JC, Teh BS, et al.: Outcome of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma and leptomeningeal dissemination. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84 (2): 350-4, 2012.
  48. Stokland T, Liu JF, Ironside JW, et al.: A multivariate analysis of factors determining tumor progression in childhood low-grade glioma: a population-based cohort study (CCLG CNS9702). Neuro Oncol 12 (12): 1257-68, 2010.
  49. Creach KM, Rubin JB, Leonard JR, et al.: Oligodendrogliomas in children. J Neurooncol 106 (2): 377-82, 2012.
  50. Pollack IF, Finkelstein SD, Woods J, et al.: Expression of p53 and prognosis in children with malignant gliomas. N Engl J Med 346 (6): 420-7, 2002.
  51. Rood BR, MacDonald TJ: Pediatric high-grade glioma: molecular genetic clues for innovative therapeutic approaches. J Neurooncol 75 (3): 267-72, 2005.
  52. Pollack IF, Hamilton RL, Burnham J, et al.: Impact of proliferation index on outcome in childhood malignant gliomas: results in a multi-institutional cohort. Neurosurgery 50 (6): 1238-44; discussion 1244-5, 2002.
  53. Finlay JL, Boyett JM, Yates AJ, et al.: Randomized phase III trial in childhood high-grade astrocytoma comparing vincristine, lomustine, and prednisone with the eight-drugs-in-1-day regimen. Childrens Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 13 (1): 112-23, 1995.
  54. Villano JL, Seery TE, Bressler LR: Temozolomide in malignant gliomas: current use and future targets. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 64 (4): 647-55, 2009.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: September 04, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
1|2|3|4
1|2|3|4
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

doctor and patient
How to know when it’s time for home care
doctory with x-ray
Here are 10 to know.
 
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
 
Malignant Gliomas
Article
Pets Improve Your Health
SLIDESHOW
 
Headache Emergencies
Video
life after a brain tumor
VIDEO
 

Would you consider trying alternative or complementary therapies?


WebMD Special Sections