When the pituitary tumor secretes prolactin (PRL), treatment will depend on tumor size and the symptoms that result from excessive hormone production. Patients with PRL-secreting tumors are treated with surgery and radiation therapy. Most microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas respond well to medical therapy with ergot-derived dopamine agonists, including bromocriptine and cabergoline. For many patients, cabergoline has a more satisfactory side effect profile than bromocriptine. Cabergoline therapy may be successful in treating patients whose prolactinomas are resistant to bromocriptine or who cannot tolerate bromocriptine, and this treatment has a success rate of more than 90% in patients with newly diagnosed prolactinomas.[3,4,5] On the basis of its safety record in pregnancy, however, bromocriptine is the treatment of choice when restoration of fertility is the patient's goal. Microprolactinomas change little in size with treatment, but macroprolactinomas can be expected to shrink, sometimes quite dramatically. Surgery is typically reserved for those patients who cannot tolerate dopamine agonists, who suffer pituitary apoplexy during treatment, or whose macroprolactinomas are not responsive to medical therapy. Occasionally, these tumors may ultimately require radiation therapy.
Glioma is a broad category of brain and spinal cord tumors that come from glial cells, the main brain cells that can develop into tumors.
The symptoms, prognosis, and treatment of a malignant glioma depend on the person’s age, the exact type of tumor, and the location of the tumor within the brain. These tumors tend to grow and infiltrate into the normal brain tissue, which makes surgical removal very difficult -- or sometimes impossible -- and complicates treatment.
The risk of these brain tumors...
Dopamine agonists, such as cabergoline and bromocriptine.
Radiation therapy (occasionally).
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with pituitary tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Yeh PJ, Chen JW: Pituitary tumors: surgical and medical management. Surg Oncol 6 (2): 67-92, 1997.
Levy A: Pituitary disease: presentation, diagnosis, and management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75 (Suppl 3): iii47-52, 2004.
Colao A, Di Sarno A, Landi ML, et al.: Macroprolactinoma shrinkage during cabergoline treatment is greater in naive patients than in patients pretreated with other dopamine agonists: a prospective study in 110 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85 (6): 2247-52, 2000.
Cannavò S, Curtò L, Squadrito S, et al.: Cabergoline: a first-choice treatment in patients with previously untreated prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. J Endocrinol Invest 22 (5): 354-9, 1999.
Colao A, Di Sarno A, Landi ML, et al.: Long-term and low-dose treatment with cabergoline induces macroprolactinoma shrinkage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82 (11): 3574-9, 1997.
Schlechte JA: Clinical practice. Prolactinoma. N Engl J Med 349 (21): 2035-41, 2003.
Nomikos P, Buchfelder M, Fahlbusch R: Current management of prolactinomas. J Neurooncol 54 (2): 139-50, 2001.