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Cervical Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

  1. General Information About Cervical Cancer

    Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the cervix.The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium. Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which cells that are not normal begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Later, cancer cells start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about cervical cancer:Cervical Cancer PreventionCervical Cancer TreatmentScreening for cervical cancer using the Pap

  2. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    After endometrial cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the uterus or to other parts of the body.The process used to find out whether the cancer has spread within the uterus or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Certain tests and procedures are used in the staging process. A hysterectomy (an operation in which the uterus is removed) will usually be done to help find out how far the cancer has spread.The following procedures may be used in the staging process: Pelvic exam: An exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and the other hand is placed over the lower abdomen to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. A speculum is also

  3. Recurrent or Chemoresistant Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia Treatment

    Recurrent disease indicates failure of prior chemotherapy unless initial therapy was surgery alone. One study found recurrence of disease in 2.5% of patients with nonmetastatic disease, 3.7% of patients with good-prognosis metastatic disease, and 13% of patients with poor-prognosis metastatic disease.[1] Nearly all recurrences occur within 3 years of remission (85% before 18 months). A patient whose disease progresses after primary surgical therapy is generally treated with single-agent chemotherapy unless one of the poor-prognosis factors that requires combination chemotherapy supervenes. Relapse after prior chemotherapy failure automatically places the patient into the high-risk category. These patients should be treated with aggressive chemotherapy. Reports of combination chemotherapy come from small retrospective case series. Long-term disease-free survival, in excess of 50%, is achievable with combination drug regimens.[2][Level of evidence: 3iiiDii] A variety of regimens have

  4. Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    For patients with localized recurrences (pelvis and periaortic lymph nodes) or distant metastases in selected sites, radiation therapy may be an effective palliative therapy. In rare instances, pelvic radiation therapy may be curative in pure vaginal recurrence when no prior radiation therapy has been used. Patients positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors respond best to progestin therapy. Among 115 patients with advanced endometrial cancer who were treated with progestins, 75% (42 of 56 patients) of those with detectable progesterone receptors in their tumors before treatment responded, compared with only 7% without detectable progesterone receptors (4 of 59 patients).[1] A receptor-poor status may predict not only poor response to progestins but also a better response to cytotoxic chemotherapy.[2] Evidence suggests that tamoxifen (20 mg twice a day) will give a response rate of 20% in those who do not respond to standard progesterone therapy.[3]Several randomized trials

  5. Treatment Options by Stage

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Stage I Endometrial CancerTreatment of stage I endometrial cancer may include the following:Surgery (total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy). Lymph nodes in the pelvis and abdomen may also be removed and viewed under a microscope to check for cancer cells.Surgery (total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with or without removal of lymph nodes in the pelvis and abdomen) followed by internal or external radiation therapy to the pelvis. After surgery, a plastic cylinder containing a source of radiation may be placed in the vagina to kill any remaining cancer cells.Radiation therapy alone for patients who cannot have surgery.Clinical trials of new types of treatment.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list

  6. General Information About Cervical Cancer

    Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the cervix. The cervix is the lower,narrow end of the uterus (the hollow,pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix,the cells of the cervix go through changes ...

  7. Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  8. Stage Information for Cervical Cancer

    Cervical carcinoma has its origins at the squamous-columnar junction whether in the endocervical canal or on the portion of the cervix. The precursor lesion is dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]), which can subsequently become invasive cancer. This process can be quite slow. Longitudinal studies have shown that in untreated patients with in situ cervical cancer, 30% to 70% will develop invasive carcinoma over a period of 10 to 12 years. However, in about 10% of patients, lesions can progress from in situ to invasive in a period of less than 1 year. As it becomes invasive, the tumor breaks through the basement membrane and invades the cervical stroma. Extension of the tumor in the cervix may ultimately manifest as ulceration, exophytic tumor, or extensive infiltration of underlying tissue including bladder or rectum. In addition to local invasion, carcinoma of the cervix can spread via the regional lymphatics or bloodstream.

  9. Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  10. Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with gestational trophoblastic disease.Different types of treatment are available for patients with gestational trophoblastic disease. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. Before starting treatment, patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site. Choosing the most appropriate cancer treatment is a decision that ideally involves the patient, family, and health care team.Three types of standard treatment are

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