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    Cervical Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

    1. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Significance

      Epidemiology of Endometrial CancerIncidence and mortalityEndometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic cancer in U.S. women, with an estimated 49,560 new cases expected to occur in 2013 and an estimated 8,190 women expected to die of the disease.[1] Endometrial cancer is primarily a disease of postmenopausal women with a mean age at diagnosis of 60 years.[2] Age-adjusted endometrial cancer incidence in the United States has declined since 1975, with a transient increase in incidence occurring from 1973 to 1978, which was associated with estrogen therapy, also known as hormone therapy;[3] there was no associated increase in mortality. From 2005 to 2009, incidence rates of endometrial cancer were stable in white women but increased in African American women by 2.2% per year.[1] The endometrial cancer mortality rates are stable in white women but increased slightly (by 0.4% per year) in African American women from 2005 to 2009.[1] Most cases of endometrial cancer are

    2. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062961-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Cervical Cancer Treatment

    3. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (04 / 23 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. General Information About Endometrial CancerRevised text to state that cancer of the endometrium is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States, and irregular vaginal bleeding is an early sign and foremost symptom of the highly curable endometrial tumor.Revised text to state that although the collection of cytology specimen is still suggested, a positive result does not upstage the disease. Stage Information for Endometrial CancerAdded text to state that Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stages are further subdivided by the histologic grade of the tumor, for example, stage IC G2.Treatment Option OverviewAdded text to state that the results of a study by the Danish Endometrial Cancer Group also suggest that the absence of radiation does not improve the

    4. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Endometrial Cancer

      For more information from the National Cancer Institute about endometrial cancer, see the following: Endometrial Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Cancer of the UterusEndometrial Cancer PreventionEndometrial Cancer ScreeningTamoxifen: Questions and AnswersFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

    5. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy

      For more information from the National Cancer Institute about cervical cancer, see the following: Cervical Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Cancer of the CervixCervical Cancer PreventionCervical Cancer ScreeningUnusual Cancers of ChildhoodDrugs Approved to Treat Cervical CancerCryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and AnswersLasers in Cancer TreatmentUnderstanding Cervical Changes: A Health Guide for WomenHuman Papillomavirus (HPV) VaccinesPap and HPV TestingFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

    6. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IVB Cervical Cancer Treatment

      The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[1] Survival and local control are better with unilateral rather than bilateral parametrial involvement.[2] Patients who are surgically staged as part of a clinical trial and are found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy.[3] If postoperative external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is planned following surgery, extraperitoneal lymph node sampling is associated with fewer radiation-induced complications than a transperitoneal approach.[4] The resection of macroscopically involved pelvic nodes may improve rates of local control with postoperative radiation therapy.[5] Treatment of patients with unresected periaortic nodes with extended-field radiation therapy leads to long-term disease control in those patients with low volume (<2 cm) nodal disease below L3.[6]

    7. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (09 / 19 / 2014)

      Description of the EvidenceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Added Howlader et al. as reference 13.Revised text to state that among women older than 65 years, cervical cancer mortality for black women is more than 150% higher than for white women.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    8. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062964-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Endometrial Cancer Treatment

    9. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages of Endometrial Cancer

      After endometrial cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the uterus or to other parts of the body.The process used to find out whether the cancer has spread within the uterus or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Certain tests and procedures are used in the staging process. A hysterectomy (an operation in which the uterus is removed) will usually be done to help find out how far the cancer has spread.The following procedures may be used in the staging process: Pelvic exam: An exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and the other hand is placed over the lower abdomen to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. A speculum is also

    10. Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage I Uterine Sarcoma

      Standard treatment options: Surgery (total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic and periaortic selective lymphadenectomy).Surgery plus pelvic radiation therapy.Surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy.Surgery plus adjuvant radiation therapy as seen in the EORTC-55874 trial, for example.In a nonrandomized, Gynecologic Oncology Group study in patients with stage I and II carcinosarcomas, those who had pelvic radiation therapy had a significant reduction of recurrences within the radiation treatment field but no alteration in survival.[1] A large nonrandomized study demonstrated improved survival and a lower local failure rate in patients with mixed mullerian tumors following postoperative external and intracavitary radiation therapy.[2] One nonrandomized study that predominantly included patients with carcinosarcomas appeared to show benefit for adjuvant therapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin.[3]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's

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