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    Cervical Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

    1. Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

      Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a broad term encompassing both benign and malignant growths arising from products of conception in the uterus. GTD may be classified as follows:[1]Hydatidiform mole (HM).Complete HM.Partial HM.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.Invasive mole.Choriocarcinoma.Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (very rare).Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (even more rare).The reported incidence of GTD varies widely worldwide, from a low of 23 per 100,000 pregnancies (Paraguay) to a high of 1,299 per 100,000 pregnancies (Indonesia).[1] However, at least part of this variability is caused by differences in diagnostic criteria and reporting. The reported incidence in the United States is about 110 to 120 per 100,000 pregnancies. The reported incidence of choriocarcinoma, the most aggressive form of GTD, in the United States is about 2 to 7 per 100,000 pregnancies. The U.S. age-standardized (1960 World Population Standard) incidence rate of choriocarcinoma is

    2. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    3. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Endometrial Cancer

      Standard treatment options:Treatment of patients with stage IV endometrial cancer is dictated by the site of metastatic disease and symptoms related to disease sites. For bulky pelvic disease, radiation therapy consisting of a combination of intracavitary and external-beam radiation therapy is used. When distant metastases, especially pulmonary metastases, are present, hormonal therapy is indicated and useful. Observational studies support maximal cytoreductive surgery for patients with stage IV disease, although these conclusions need to be interpreted with care because of the small number of cases and likely selection bias.When possible, patients with stage IV endometrial cancer are treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, or both. For many years, radiation therapy was the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with endometrial cancer. However, several randomized trials have confirmed improved survival when adjuvant chemotherapy is used instead of

    4. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

      Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare diseases in which abnormal trophoblast cells grow inside the uterus after conception.Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) develops inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg). This tissue is made of trophoblast cells and normally surrounds the fertilized egg in the uterus. Trophoblast cells help connect the fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus and form part of the placenta (the organ that passes nutrients from the mother to the fetus).Sometimes there is a problem with the fertilized egg and trophoblast cells. Instead of a healthy fetus developing, a tumor forms. Until there are signs or symptoms of the tumor, the pregnancy will seem like a normal pregnancy.Most GTD is benign (not cancer) and does not spread, but some types become malignant (cancer) and spread to nearby tissues or distant parts of the body.Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a general term that

    5. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Low-Risk Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (FIGO Score 0–6) Treatment

      There is no consensus on the best chemotherapy regimen for initial management of low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), and first-line regimens vary by geography and institutional preference. Most regimens have not been compared head-to-head, and the level of evidence for efficacy is often limited to 3iiDii except as noted below. Even if there are differences in initial remission rate among the regimens, salvage with alternate regimens is very effective, and the ultimate cure rates are generally 99% or more. The initial regimen is generally given until a normal beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) (for the institution) is achieved and sustained for 3 consecutive weeks (or at least for one treatment cycle beyond normalization of the beta-hCG). A salvage regimen is instituted if any of the following occur:A plateau of the beta-hCG for 3 weeks (defined as a beta-hCG decrease of 10% or less for 3 consecutive weeks).A rise in beta-hCG of greater than 20%

    6. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Uterine Sarcoma

      Definitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define carcinoma of the corpus uteri, which applies to uterine sarcoma; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2]Uterine sarcomas include leiomyosarcomas, endometrial stromal sarcomas, and adenosarcomas. Table 1. Uterine SarcomaaStagea Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.[1]b Either G1, G2, or G3 (G = grade).c Endocervical glandular involvement only should be considered as stage I and no longer as stage II.d Positive cytology has to be reported separately without changing the stage.IbTumor confined to the corpus uteri.IAbNo or less than half myometrial invasion.IBbInvasion equal to or more than half of the myometrium.IIbTumor invades cervical stroma but does not extend beyond the uterus.cIIIbLocal and/or regional spread of the tumor.IIIAbTumor invades the serosa of the corpus uteri and/or

    7. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    8. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - High-Risk Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (FIGO Score ≥7) Treatment

      Multiagent chemotherapy is standard for the initial management of high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). A systematic literature review revealed only one randomized controlled trial (and no high-quality trials)—conducted in the 1980s—comparing multiagent chemotherapy regimens for high-risk GTN.[1] In the trial, only 42 women were randomly assigned to either a CHAMOMA regimen (i.e., methotrexate, folinic acid, hydroxyurea, dactinomycin, vincristine, melphalan, and doxorubicin) or MAC (i.e., methotrexate, dactinomycin, and chlorambucil).[2] There was substantially more life-threatening toxicity in the CHAMOMA arm and no evidence of higher efficacy. However, there were serious methodologic problems with this trial. It was reportedly designed as an equivalency trial, but owing to the small sample size, the trial was inadequately powered to assess equivalence. In addition, the characteristics of the patients randomly assigned to the two study arms were not

    9. Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    10. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Hydatidiform Mole (HM) Management

      Treatment of HM is within the purview of the obstetrician/gynecologist and will not be discussed separately here. However, following the diagnosis and treatment of HM, patients should be monitored to rule out the possibility of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. In almost all cases, this can be performed with routine monitoring of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) to document its return to normal. An effective form of contraception is important during the follow-up period to avoid the confusion that can occur with a rising beta-hCG as a result of pregnancy. Chemotherapy is necessary when there is the following: A rising beta-hCG titer for 2 weeks (3 titers).A tissue diagnosis of choriocarcinoma.A plateau of the beta-hCG for 3 weeks.Persistence of detectable beta-hCG 6 months after mole evacuation.Metastatic disease.An elevation in beta-hCG after a normal value.Postevacuation hemorrhage not caused by retained tissues.Chemotherapy is ultimately required for

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