Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Endometrial Cancer
For more information from the National Cancer Institute about endometrial cancer, see the following: Endometrial Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Cancer of the UterusEndometrial Cancer PreventionEndometrial Cancer ScreeningTamoxifen: Questions and AnswersFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates
Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.
Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Special Populations
Hormone TherapyThere is no evidence to suggest that screening women prior to or during estrogen-progestin therapy, also known as hormone therapy, would decrease endometrial cancer mortality.[1,2] Thus women on hormone therapy should have a prompt diagnostic work-up for abnormal bleeding. Although women using certain hormone regimens have an increased risk of endometrial cancer, most women who develop cancer will have vaginal bleeding. There is no evidence that screening these women would decrease mortality from endometrial cancer.Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal CancerThe lifetime risk of endometrial cancer for women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and for women who are at high risk for HNPCC is as high as 60%. These cases are often diagnosed in the fifth decade, 10 to 20 years earlier than sporadic cases. [3,4,5,6,7] Based on limited evidence, it appears that 5-year survival among HNPCC women diagnosed with endometrial cancer is similar to that of
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The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About Cervical CancerUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Recurrent Cervical CancerThis section was extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
Most hydatidiform moles (HMs) are benign and are treated conservatively by dilation, suction evacuation, and curettage. However, since they carry a risk of persistence or progression to malignant gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), they must be followed carefully with weekly serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels to normalization. Monthly follow-up for 6 months is generally recommended, although the duration of this phase of follow-up is not based on empiric study.Prompt institution of therapy for GTD and continuing follow-up at very close intervals until normal beta-hCG titers are obtained is the cornerstone of management. When chemotherapy is instituted, the interval between courses should rarely exceed 14 to 21 days, depending on the regimen used. It is recommended that patients receive one to three courses of chemotherapy after the first normal beta-hCG titer, depending on the extent of disease. The modified World Health Organization (WHO) Prognostic Scoring System
Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages IB and IIA Cervical Cancer Treatment
Either radiation therapy or radical hysterectomy and bilateral lymph node dissection results in cure rates of 85% to 90% for women with Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) stages IA2 and IB1 small-volume disease. The choice of either treatment depends on patient factors and available local expertise. A randomized trial reported identical 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival rates when comparing radiation therapy to radical hysterectomy. The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy. For adenocarcinomas that expand the cervix more than 4 cm, the primary treatment should be concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. After surgical staging, patients found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy. The resection of
Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with endometrial cancer.Different types of treatment are available for patients with endometrial cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used: SurgerySurgery (removing the cancer in an operation) is the most common treatment for endometrial cancer. The following surgical procedures may be used: Total hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus, including the cervix. If the uterus and cervix are
Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Endometrial Cancer
Endometrial cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the endometrium. The endometrium is the lining of the uterus,a hollow,muscular organ in a woman’s pelvis. The uterus is where a fetus grows. In most nonpregnant women,the uterus is about 3 inches long. The lower,narrow end of the uterus is the cervix,which leads to the vagina. Cancer of the ...
Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence
BackgroundNatural history, incidence, and mortalityIn the United States in 2013, it is estimated that 12,340 cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed and that 4,030 women will die of the disease. These rates had been improving steadily. However, from 2005 to 2009, rates were stable in women younger than 50 years and decreased by 3.0% per year in women aged 50 years and older. From 2005 to 2009, mortality rates were stable among women of all ages. This improvement has been attributed largely to screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test.Invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix results from the progression of preinvasive precursor lesions called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or dysplasia. CIN is histologically graded into mild dysplasia (CIN 1), moderate dysplasia (CIN 2), or severe dysplasia (CIN 3). Not all of these lesions progress to invasive cancer; many mild and moderate lesions regress. A further