Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of Evidence
Separate PDQ summaries on Prevention of Endometrial Cancer; Endometrial Cancer Treatment; and Uterine Sarcoma Treatment are also available. Benefits There is inadequate evidence that screening by ultrasonography (e.g.,transvaginal ultrasound [TVU]) or endometrial sampling would reduce the mortality from endometrial cancer. Description of the Evidence STUDY DESIGN: No studies have adequately ...
Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening
Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of cervical cancer screening include the following: False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal even though cervical cancer is present. A woman who receives a false-negative test result (one that shows there is no cancer when there really is) may delay seeking medical care even if she has symptoms.False-positive test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be abnormal even though no cancer is present. Also, some abnormal cells in the cervix never become cancer. A false-positive test result (one that shows there is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by
Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) may be classified as follows:Hydatidiform mole (HM).Complete HM.Partial HM.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.Invasive mole.Choriocarcinoma.Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT; very rare).Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT; even more rare). Choriocarcinoma, PSTT and ETT are often grouped under the heading gestational trophoblastic tumors. HMHM is defined as products of conception that show gross cyst-like swellings of the chorionic villi that are caused by an accumulation of fluid. There is disintegration and loss of blood vessels in the villous core. Complete HMA complete mole occurs when an ovum that has extruded its maternal nucleus is fertilized by either a single sperm, with subsequent chromosome duplication, or two sperm, resulting in either case in a diploid karyotype. The former case always yields a mole with a karyotype of 46 XX, since at least one X chromosome is required for viability and a karyotype of 46 YY is rapidly
Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Cervical Cancer
Recurrent cervical cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the cervix or in other parts of the body.
Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of Evidence
Incidence and MortalityAn estimated 12,340 new cervical cancers and 4,030 cervical cancer deaths will occur in the United States in 2013. An additional 1,250,000 women will be diagnosed with precancers annually by cytology using the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. A continuum of pathologic changes may be diagnosed, ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) to invasive cancer. The precancerous conditions LSIL and HSIL are also referred to as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, 2, and 3. Lesions can regress, persist, or progress to an invasive malignancy, with LSIL (CIN 1) more likely to regress spontaneously and HSIL (CIN 2/CIN 3) more likely to persist or progress. The average time for progression of CIN 3 to invasive cancer is estimated to be 10 to 15 years.The incidence of cervical cancer has decreased dramatically with the advent and widespread
Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Special Populations
Hormone TherapyThere is no evidence to suggest that screening women prior to or during estrogen-progestin therapy, also known as hormone therapy, would decrease endometrial cancer mortality.[1,2] Thus women on hormone therapy should have a prompt diagnostic work-up for abnormal bleeding. Although women using certain hormone regimens have an increased risk of endometrial cancer, most women who develop cancer will have vaginal bleeding. There is no evidence that screening these women would decrease mortality from endometrial cancer.Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal CancerThe lifetime risk of endometrial cancer for women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and for women who are at high risk for HNPCC is as high as 60%. These cases are often diagnosed in the fifth decade, 10 to 20 years earlier than sporadic cases. [3,4,5,6,7] Based on limited evidence, it appears that 5-year survival among HNPCC women diagnosed with endometrial cancer is similar to that of
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (12 / 02 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the cervix.The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium. Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which cells that are not normal begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Later, cancer cells start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about cervical cancer:Cervical Cancer PreventionCervical Cancer TreatmentScreening for cervical cancer using the Pap
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 18 / 2012)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Stage Information for Uterine SarcomaUpdated staging information for 2010 (cited Pecorelli and Edge et al. as references 1 and 2, respectively).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.