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Cervical Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

  1. Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Endometrial Cancer

    For more information from the National Cancer Institute about endometrial cancer, see the following: Endometrial Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Cancer of the UterusEndometrial Cancer PreventionEndometrial Cancer ScreeningTamoxifen: Questions and AnswersFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

  2. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a broad term encompassing both benign and malignant growths arising from products of conception in the uterus. GTD may be classified as follows:[1]Hydatidiform mole (HM).Complete HM.Partial HM.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.Invasive mole.Choriocarcinoma.Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (very rare).Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (even more rare).The reported incidence of GTD varies widely worldwide, from a low of 23 per 100,000 pregnancies (Paraguay) to a high of 1,299 per 100,000 pregnancies (Indonesia).[1] However, at least part of this variability is caused by differences in diagnostic criteria and reporting. The reported incidence in the United States is about 110 to 120 per 100,000 pregnancies. The reported incidence of choriocarcinoma, the most aggressive form of GTD, in the United States is about 2 to 7 per 100,000 pregnancies. The U.S. age-standardized (1960 World Population Standard) incidence rate of choriocarcinoma is

  3. Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Cervical Cancer Treatment

    The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[1] Patterns-of-care studies in stage IIIA/IIIB patients indicate that survival is dependent on the extent of the disease, with unilateral pelvic wall involvement predicting a better outcome than bilateral involvement, which in turn predicts a better outcome than involvement of the lower third of the vaginal wall.[2] These studies also reveal a progressive increase in local control and survival paralleling a progressive increase in paracentral (point A) dose and use of intracavitary treatment. The highest rate of central control was seen with paracentral (point A) doses of more than 85 Gy.[3] Patients who are surgically staged as part of a clinical trial and are found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with external-beam pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy. If postoperative external-beam radiation

  4. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent and Resistant Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia

    Recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the uterus or in other parts of the body.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that does not respond to treatment is called resistant GTN.

  5. Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy

    The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[1] After surgical staging, patients found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy. Five randomized, phase III trials have shown an overall survival advantage for cisplatin-based therapy given concurrently with radiation therapy,[2,3,4,5,6,7,8] while one trial examining this regimen demonstrated no benefit.[9] The patient populations in these studies included women with Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) stages IB2 to IVA cervical cancer treated with primary radiation therapy and women with FIGO stages I to IIA disease who, at the time of primary surgery, were found to have poor prognostic factors, which include the following: Metastatic disease in pelvic lymph nodes.Parametrial disease.Positive surgical margins.Although the

  6. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Special Populations

    Hormone TherapyThere is no evidence to suggest that screening women prior to or during estrogen-progestin therapy, also known as hormone therapy, would decrease endometrial cancer mortality.[1,2] Thus women on hormone therapy should have a prompt diagnostic work-up for abnormal bleeding. Although women using certain hormone regimens have an increased risk of endometrial cancer, most women who develop cancer will have vaginal bleeding. There is no evidence that screening these women would decrease mortality from endometrial cancer.Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal CancerThe lifetime risk of endometrial cancer for women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and for women who are at high risk for HNPCC is as high as 60%. These cases are often diagnosed in the fifth decade, 10 to 20 years earlier than sporadic cases. [3,4,5,6,7] Based on limited evidence, it appears that 5-year survival among HNPCC women diagnosed with endometrial cancer is similar to that of

  7. Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    After endometrial cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the uterus or to other parts of the body.The process used to find out whether the cancer has spread within the uterus or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Certain tests and procedures are used in the staging process. A hysterectomy (an operation in which the uterus is removed) will usually be done to help find out how far the cancer has spread.The following procedures may be used in the staging process: Pelvic exam: An exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and the other hand is placed over the lower abdomen to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. A speculum is also

  8. Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages IIB, III, and IVA Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Either radiation therapy or radical hysterectomy results in cure rates of 75% to 80%. The selection of either option depends on patient factors and local expertise. A randomized trial reported identical 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival rates when radiation therapy was compared with radical hysterectomy.[1] The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[2] For patients with bulky (>6 cm) endocervical squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, treatment with high-dose radiation therapy will achieve local control and survival rates comparable to treatment with radiation therapy plus hysterectomy. Surgery after radiation therapy may be indicated for some patients with tumors confined to the cervix that respond incompletely to radiation therapy or in whom vaginal anatomy precludes optimal brachytherapy.[3] After surgical staging, patients found to have small volume para-aortic nodal

  9. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma

    There is currently no standard therapy for patients with stage IV disease. These patients should be entered into an ongoing clinical trial.Carcinosarcomas (the preferred designation by the World Health Organization) are also referred to as mixed mesodermal or mullerian tumors. Controversy exists about the following issues:Whether they are true sarcomas.Whether the sarcomatous elements are actually derived from a common epithelial cell precursor that also gives rise to the usually more abundant adenocarcinomatous elements. The stromal components of the carcinosarcomas are further characterized by whether they contain homologous elements, such as malignant mesenchymal tissue considered possibly native to the uterus, or heterologous elements, such as striated muscle, cartilage, or bone, which is foreign to the uterus. Carcinosarcomas parallel endometrial cancer in its postmenopausal predominance and in other of its epidemiologic features; increasingly, the treatment of carcinosarcomas

  10. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Placental-Site Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor Treatment

    Given the rarity of this tumor, reports of therapeutic results are confined to relatively small case series with accrual extending for very long time periods. Therefore, few reliable comparisons among surgical approaches or chemotherapeutic regimens can be made. Nevertheless, there are distinctions in underlying biology between placental-site gestational trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs) and the other gestational trophoblastic tumors—particularly resistance to chemotherapy—that justify specific treatment strategies, such as the following: Tumors confined to the uterus (Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique [FIGO] Stage I).Hysterectomy is the treatment of choice.[1,2] In a relatively large, retrospective, population-based, consecutive, case series of 62 women with PSTT, 33 had disease confined to the uterus and were treated with hysterectomy (n = 17) or with hysterectomy plus chemotherapy (n = 16). Overall survival at 10 years was virtually identical between the

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