Stage Information for Endometrial Cancer
Definitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define endometrial cancer; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2]Carcinosarcomas should be staged as carcinoma. FIGO stages are further subdivided by the histologic grade of the tumor, for example, stage IC G2.Table 1. Carcinoma of the EndometriumaStagea Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.b Either G1, G2, or G3 (G = grade).c Endocervical glandular involvement only should be considered as stage I and no longer as stage II.d Positive cytology has to be reported separately without changing the stage.IbTumor confined to the corpus uteri.IAbNo or less than half myometrial invasion.IBbInvasion equal to or more than half of the myometrium.IIbTumor invades cervical stroma but does not extend beyond the uterus.cIIIbLocal and/or regional spread of the tumor.IIIAbTumor invades the serosa of the corpus
Stage II Uterine Sarcoma
Standard treatment options:Surgery (total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic and periaortic selective lymphadenectomy).Surgery plus pelvic radiation therapy.Surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy.Surgery plus adjuvant radiation therapy (EORTC-55874).In a nonrandomized, Gynecologic Oncology Group study in patients with stage I and II carcinosarcomas, those who had pelvic radiation therapy had a significant reduction of recurrences within the radiation treatment field but no alteration in survival. One nonrandomized study that predominantly included patients with carcinosarcomas appeared to show benefit for adjuvant therapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage II uterine sarcoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical
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Stages of Cervical Cancer
After cervical cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. A small amount
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Endometrial Cancer Treatment
Changes to This Summary (05 / 10 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Changes to This Summary (02 / 27 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.SignificanceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Changes to This Summary (02 / 26 / 2013)
Description of the EvidenceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Added Howlader et al. as reference 13.Revised text to state that among women older than 65 years, cervical cancer mortality for black women is more than 150% higher than for white women.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
What is prevention?
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer,the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully,this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting,scientists look at risk factors and protective factors. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a ...