Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 22 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Hydatidiform Mole (HM) Management
Treatment of HM is within the purview of the obstetrician/gynecologist and will not be discussed separately here. However, following the diagnosis and treatment of HM, patients should be monitored to rule out the possibility of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. In almost all cases, this can be performed with routine monitoring of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) to document its return to normal. An effective form of contraception is important during the follow-up period to avoid the confusion that can occur with a rising beta-hCG as a result of pregnancy. Chemotherapy is necessary when there is the following: A rising beta-hCG titer for 2 weeks (3 titers).A tissue diagnosis of choriocarcinoma.A plateau of the beta-hCG for 3 weeks.Persistence of detectable beta-hCG 6 months after mole evacuation.Metastatic disease.An elevation in beta-hCG after a normal value.Postevacuation hemorrhage not caused by retained tissues.Chemotherapy is ultimately required for
Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Uterine Sarcoma
Definitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define carcinoma of the corpus uteri, which applies to uterine sarcoma; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2]Uterine sarcomas include leiomyosarcomas, endometrial stromal sarcomas, and adenosarcomas. Table 1. Uterine SarcomaaStagea Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.b Either G1, G2, or G3 (G = grade).c Endocervical glandular involvement only should be considered as stage I and no longer as stage II.d Positive cytology has to be reported separately without changing the stage.IbTumor confined to the corpus uteri.IAbNo or less than half myometrial invasion.IBbInvasion equal to or more than half of the myometrium.IIbTumor invades cervical stroma but does not extend beyond the uterus.cIIIbLocal and/or regional spread of the tumor.IIIAbTumor invades the serosa of the corpus uteri and/or
Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Endometrial Cancer
Standard treatment options: A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be done if the tumor: Is well or moderately differentiated.Involves the upper 66% of the corpus.Has negative peritoneal cytology.Is without vascular space invasion.Has less than a 50% myometrial invasion.Selected pelvic lymph nodes may be removed. If they are negative, no postoperative treatment is indicated. Postoperative treatment with a vaginal cylinder is advocated by some clinicians.For all other cases and cell types, a pelvic and selective periaortic node sampling should be combined with the total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, if there are no medical or technical contraindications. One study found that node dissection per se did not significantly add to the overall morbidity from hysterectomy. While the radiation therapy will reduce the incidence of local and regional recurrence, improved survival has not been proven and toxic effects are
Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy
The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy. After surgical staging, patients found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy. Five randomized, phase III trials have shown an overall survival advantage for cisplatin-based therapy given concurrently with radiation therapy,[2,3,4,5,6,7,8] while one trial examining this regimen demonstrated no benefit. The patient populations in these studies included women with Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) stages IB2 to IVA cervical cancer treated with primary radiation therapy and women with FIGO stages I to IIA disease who, at the time of primary surgery, were found to have poor prognostic factors, which include the following: Metastatic disease in pelvic lymph nodes.Parametrial disease.Positive surgical margins.Although the
Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - What is prevention?
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer,the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully,this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting,scientists look at risk factors and protective factors. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a ...
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) may be classified as follows:Hydatidiform mole (HM).Complete HM.Partial HM.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.Invasive mole.Choriocarcinoma.Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT; very rare).Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT; even more rare). Choriocarcinoma, PSTT and ETT are often grouped under the heading gestational trophoblastic tumors. HMHM is defined as products of conception that show gross cyst-like swellings of the chorionic villi that are caused by an accumulation of fluid. There is disintegration and loss of blood vessels in the villous core. Complete HMA complete mole occurs when an ovum that has extruded its maternal nucleus is fertilized by either a single sperm, with subsequent chromosome duplication, or two sperm, resulting in either case in a diploid karyotype. The former case always yields a mole with a karyotype of 46 XX, since at least one X chromosome is required for viability and a karyotype of 46 YY is rapidly
Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of Evidence
Separate PDQ summaries on Prevention of Endometrial Cancer; Endometrial Cancer Treatment; and Uterine Sarcoma Treatment are also available. Benefits There is inadequate evidence that screening by ultrasonography (e.g.,transvaginal ultrasound [TVU]) or endometrial sampling would reduce the mortality from endometrial cancer. Description of the Evidence STUDY DESIGN: No studies have adequately ...
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
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