General Information About Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia
Gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTTs) and neoplasias (GTNs) are rare but highly curable tumors arising from the products of conception in the uterus. GTTs include: Choriocarcinoma. Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (very rare). Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (even more rare). GTNs include: GTTs. Persistence of complete or partial gestational hydatidiform moles. Invasive moles. All of ...
Changes to This Summary (04 / 17 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. This summary was completely reformatted. Images and some content were added.
Description of the Evidence
BackgroundNatural history, incidence, and mortalityIn the United States in 2013, it is estimated that 12,340 cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed and that 4,030 women will die of the disease. These rates had been improving steadily. However, from 2005 to 2009, rates were stable in women younger than 50 years and decreased by 3.0% per year in women aged 50 years and older. From 2005 to 2009, mortality rates were stable among women of all ages. This improvement has been attributed largely to screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test.Invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix results from the progression of preinvasive precursor lesions called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or dysplasia. CIN is histologically graded into mild dysplasia (CIN 1), moderate dysplasia (CIN 2), or severe dysplasia (CIN 3). Not all of these lesions progress to invasive cancer; many mild and moderate lesions regress. A further
Cellular Classification of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia
Gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTTs) and neoplasias (GTNs) may be classified as follows:[ 1 ] Hydatidiform mole (HM). Complete HM. Partial HM. Invasive mole (chorioadenoma destruens). GTN. Choriocarcinoma. Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT; very rare). Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT; even more rare). HM HM is defined as products of conception that show gross cyst-like ...
Stage 0 Cervical Cancer
Consensus guidelines have been issued for managing women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or adenocarcinoma in situ. Properly treated, tumor control of in situ cervical carcinoma should be nearly 100%. Either expert colposcopic-directed biopsy or cone biopsy is required to exclude invasive disease before therapy is undertaken. A correlation between cytology and colposcopic-directed biopsy is also necessary before local ablative therapy is done. Even so, unrecognized invasive disease treated with inadequate ablative therapy may be the most common cause of failure. Failure to identify the disease, lack of correlation between the Pap smear and colposcopic findings, adenocarcinoma in situ, or extension of disease into the endocervical canal makes a laser, loop, or cold-knife conization mandatory. The choice of treatment will also depend on several patient factors including age, desire to preserve fertility, and medical condition. Most importantly, the extent of disease must
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Cervical Cancer Screening and Cervical Cancer Treatment are also available. Avoidance of Human Papillomavirus Infection Based on solid evidence,the following measures are effective to avoid human papillomavirus (HPV) infection,and thus cervical cancer: ABSTINENCE FROM SEXUAL ACTIVITY MAGNITUDE OF EFFECT: ABSTINENCE PREVENTS HPV INFECTION. Study Design: Evidence ...
General Information About Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare diseases in which abnormal trophoblast cells grow inside the uterus after conception.Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) develops inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg). This tissue is made of trophoblast cells and normally surrounds the fertilized egg in the uterus. Trophoblast cells help connect the fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus and form part of the placenta (the organ that passes nutrients from the mother to the fetus).Sometimes there is a problem with the fertilized egg and trophoblast cells. Instead of a healthy fetus developing, a tumor forms. Until there are signs or symptoms of the tumor, the pregnancy will seem like a normal pregnancy.Most GTD is benign (not cancer) and does not spread, but some types become malignant (cancer) and spread to nearby tissues or distant parts of the body.Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a general term that
Evidence of Benefit
Human Papillomavirus Epidemiologic studies to evaluate risk factors for the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and cervical malignancy demonstrate conclusively a sexual mode of transmission of a carcinogen.[ 1 ] It is now widely accepted that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiologic infectious agent.[ 2,3,4 ] Other sexually transmitted factors,including herpes ...
Stage Information for Endometrial Cancer
Note: The American Joint Committee on Cancer has recently published a new edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual,which includes revisions to the staging for this disease. The PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,which is responsible for maintaining this summary,is currently reviewing the new staging to determine the changes that need to be made in the summary. In addition to updating this ...
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Endometrial Cancer Treatment