Skip to content

Cervical Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

  1. High-Risk Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (FIGO Score ≥7) Treatment

    Multiagent chemotherapy is standard for the initial management of high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). A systematic literature review revealed only one randomized controlled trial (and no high-quality trials)—conducted in the 1980s—comparing multiagent chemotherapy regimens for high-risk GTN.[1] In the trial, only 42 women were randomly assigned to either a CHAMOMA regimen (i.e., methotrexate, folinic acid, hydroxyurea, dactinomycin, vincristine, melphalan, and doxorubicin) or MAC (i.e., methotrexate, dactinomycin, and chlorambucil).[2] There was substantially more life-threatening toxicity in the CHAMOMA arm and no evidence of higher efficacy. However, there were serious methodologic problems with this trial. It was reportedly designed as an equivalency trial, but owing to the small sample size, the trial was inadequately powered to assess equivalence. In addition, the characteristics of the patients randomly assigned to the two study arms were not

  2. About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about cervical cancer prevention. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

  3. Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumor Treatment

    These tumors are exceedingly rare. There is little information to guide therapy. However, they are similar in behavior and prognosis to placental-site trophoblastic tumors, so it is reasonable to manage them similarly. (Refer to the Placental-Site Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor Treatment section of this summary for more information.) Only a minority of these tumors are malignant in behavior, but they are not very responsive to systemic therapy. A variety of chemotherapy regimens have been used.[1]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Palmer JE, Macdonald M, Wells M, et al.: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a review of the literature. J Reprod Med 53 (7): 465-75,

  4. Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  5. Cellular Classification of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) may be classified as follows:[1]Hydatidiform mole (HM).Complete HM.Partial HM.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.Invasive mole.Choriocarcinoma.Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT; very rare).Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT; even more rare). Choriocarcinoma, PSTT and ETT are often grouped under the heading gestational trophoblastic tumors. HMHM is defined as products of conception that show gross cyst-like swellings of the chorionic villi that are caused by an accumulation of fluid. There is disintegration and loss of blood vessels in the villous core. Complete HMA complete mole occurs when an ovum that has extruded its maternal nucleus is fertilized by either a single sperm, with subsequent chromosome duplication, or two sperm, resulting in either case in a diploid karyotype. The former case always yields a mole with a karyotype of 46 XX, since at least one X chromosome is required for viability and a karyotype of 46 YY is rapidly

  6. Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

    No standard chemotherapy treatment that provides substantial palliation is available for patients with stage IVB cervical cancer. These patients are appropriate candidates for clinical trials testing single agents or combination chemotherapy employing agents listed below or new anticancer treatments in phase I and II clinical trials.[1]Standard treatment options:Radiation therapy may be used to palliate central disease or distant metastases. Chemotherapy. Tested drugs include the following:Cisplatin (15%–25% response rate).[1,2]Ifosfamide (31% response rate).[3]Paclitaxel (17% response rate).[4,5,6]Ifosfamide-cisplatin.[7,8]Irinotecan (21% response rate in patients previously treated with chemotherapy).[9]Paclitaxel/cisplatin (46% response rate).[10]Cisplatin/gemcitabine (41% response rate).[11]Cisplatin/topotecan (27% response rate).[12]Treatment options under clinical evaluation:New anticancer drugs in phase I and phase II clinical trials.Information about ongoing clinical trials

  7. Treatment Option Overview

    Most hydatidiform moles (HMs) are benign and are treated conservatively by dilation, suction evacuation, and curettage. However, since they carry a risk of persistence or progression to malignant gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), they must be followed carefully with weekly serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels to normalization. Monthly follow-up for 6 months is generally recommended, although the duration of this phase of follow-up is not based on empiric study.Prompt institution of therapy for GTD and continuing follow-up at very close intervals until normal beta-hCG titers are obtained is the cornerstone of management. When chemotherapy is instituted, the interval between courses should rarely exceed 14 to 21 days, depending on the regimen used. It is recommended that patients receive one to three courses of chemotherapy after the first normal beta-hCG titer, depending on the extent of disease. The modified World Health Organization (WHO) Prognostic Scoring System

  8. Evidence of Benefit

    Human PapillomavirusEpidemiologic studies to evaluate risk factors for the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and cervical malignancy demonstrate conclusively a sexual mode of transmission of a carcinogen.[1] It is now widely accepted that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiologic infectious agent.[2,3,4] Other sexually transmitted factors, including herpes simplex virus 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis, may play a cocausative role.[1] The finding of HPV viral DNA integrated in most cellular genomes of invasive cervical carcinomas supports epidemiologic data linking this agent to cervical cancer.[5] More than 80 distinct types of HPV have been identified, approximately 30 of which infect the human genital tract. HPV types 16 and 18 are most often associated with invasive disease. Characterization of carcinogenic risk associated with HPV types is an important step in the process of developing a combination HPV vaccine for the

  9. Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  10. Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    Recurrent endometrial cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the uterus, the pelvis, in lymph nodes in the abdomen, or in other parts of the body.

Displaying 41 - 50 of 161 Articles << Prev Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next >>

Today on WebMD

cancer cell
HPV is the top cause. Find out more.
doctor and patient
Get to know the Symptoms.
 
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
 
Integrative Medicine Cancer Quiz
QUIZ
Lifestyle Tips for Depression Slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
Screening Tests for Women
Slideshow
what is your cancer risk
HEALTH CHECK