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Cervical Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

  1. nci_ncicdr0000062762-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Cervical Cancer Prevention

  2. Stage Information for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Hydatidiform Mole (HM)HM (molar pregnancy) is disease limited to the uterine cavity. Gestational Trophoblastic NeoplasiaDefinitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define gestational trophoblastic neoplasia; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2] Some tumor registrars encourage the recording of staging in both systems.FIGO staging system (and modified World Health Organization [WHO] prognostic scoring system)The FIGO staging system is as follows:[1]Table 1. Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN)a,bFIGO Anatomical StagingFIGO = Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique; hCG = human chorionic gonadotropin; iu = international unit; WHO = World Health Organization.a Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.[1]b To stage and allot a risk factor score, a patient's diagnosis is allocated to a stage as

  3. Treatment Options for Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    Treatment of recurrent cervical cancer may include the following:Pelvic exenteration followed by radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy.Chemotherapy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms caused by the cancer and improve quality of life.Clinical trials of new anticancer drugs or drug combinations.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent cervical cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

  4. nci_ncicdr0000062756-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Cervical Cancer Screening

  5. Significance

    Epidemiology of Endometrial CancerIncidence and mortalityEndometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic cancer in U.S. women, with an estimated 49,560 new cases expected to occur in 2013 and an estimated 8,190 women expected to die of the disease.[1] Endometrial cancer is primarily a disease of postmenopausal women with a mean age at diagnosis of 60 years.[2] Age-adjusted endometrial cancer incidence in the United States has declined since 1975, with a transient increase in incidence occurring from 1973 to 1978, which was associated with estrogen therapy, also known as hormone therapy;[3] there was no associated increase in mortality. From 2005 to 2009, incidence rates of endometrial cancer were stable in white women but increased in African American women by 2.2% per year.[1] The endometrial cancer mortality rates are stable in white women but increased slightly (by 0.4% per year) in African American women from 2005 to 2009.[1] Most cases of endometrial cancer are

  6. Stage II Endometrial Cancer

    Standard treatment options:If cervical involvement is documented, options include radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection.If the cervix is clinically uninvolved but extension to the cervix is documented on postoperative pathology, radiation therapy should be considered.The completed GOG-LAP2 trial included 2,616 patients with clinical stage I to IIA disease and randomly assigned them two-to-one to comprehensive surgical staging via laparoscopy or laparotomy.[1] Time to recurrence was the primary endpoint, with noninferiority defined as a difference in recurrence rate of less than 5.3% between the two groups at 3 years. The recurrence rate at 3 years was 10.24% for patients in the laparotomy arm, compared with 11.39% for patients in the laparoscopy arm, with an estimated difference between groups of 1.14% (90% lower bound, -1.278; 95% upper bound, 3.996). Although this difference was lower than the prespecified limit, the

  7. Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    No standard treatment is available for patients with recurrent cervical cancer that has spread beyond the confines of a radiation or surgical field. For locally recurrent disease, pelvic exenteration can lead to a 5-year survival rate of 32% to 62% in selected patients.[1,2] These patients are appropriate candidates for clinical trials testing drug combinations or new anticancer agents. The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) has reported on several randomized phase III trials, (GOG-0179 [NCT00003945], GOG-0240 [NCT00803062]) in this setting. Single-agent cisplatin administered intravenously at 50 mg/m² every 3 weeks was the most-used regimen to treat recurrent cervical cancer since it was initially introduced in the 1970s.[3,4]Various combinations containing cisplatin [3,4] failed to reach their primary endpoint of improving survival, however, a doubling of the cisplatin dose-rate did improve survival. Combinations with paclitaxel and with ifosfamide improved response rates

  8. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of cervical cancer screening include the following: False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal even though cervical cancer is present. A woman who receives a false-negative test result (one that shows there is no cancer when there really is) may delay seeking medical care even if she has symptoms.False-positive test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be abnormal even though no cancer is present. Also, some abnormal cells in the cervix never become cancer. A false-positive test result (one that shows there is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by

  9. Stage Information for Uterine Sarcoma

    Definitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define carcinoma of the corpus uteri, which applies to uterine sarcoma; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2]Uterine sarcomas include leiomyosarcomas, endometrial stromal sarcomas, and adenosarcomas. Table 1. Uterine SarcomaaStagea Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.[1]b Either G1, G2, or G3 (G = grade).c Endocervical glandular involvement only should be considered as stage I and no longer as stage II.d Positive cytology has to be reported separately without changing the stage.IbTumor confined to the corpus uteri.IAbNo or less than half myometrial invasion.IBbInvasion equal to or more than half of the myometrium.IIbTumor invades cervical stroma but does not extend beyond the uterus.cIIIbLocal and/or regional spread of the tumor.IIIAbTumor invades the serosa of the corpus uteri and/or

  10. Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with endometrial cancer.Different types of treatment are available for patients with endometrial cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used: SurgerySurgery (removing the cancer in an operation) is the most common treatment for endometrial cancer. The following surgical procedures may be used: Total hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus, including the cervix. If the uterus and cervix are

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