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    Cervical Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

    1. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

      Recurrent endometrial cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the uterus, the pelvis, in lymph nodes in the abdomen, or in other parts of the body.

    2. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about endometrial cancer screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process

    3. Get More Information From NCI

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About Cervical CancerUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Recurrent Cervical CancerThis section was extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    4. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Cervical Cancer Treatment

      The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[1] Patterns-of-care studies in stage IIIA/IIIB patients indicate that survival is dependent on the extent of the disease, with unilateral pelvic wall involvement predicting a better outcome than bilateral involvement, which in turn predicts a better outcome than involvement of the lower third of the vaginal wall.[2] These studies also reveal a progressive increase in local control and survival paralleling a progressive increase in paracentral (point A) dose and use of intracavitary treatment. The highest rate of central control was seen with paracentral (point A) doses of more than 85 Gy.[3] Patients who are surgically staged as part of a clinical trial and are found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with external-beam pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy. If postoperative external-beam radiation

    5. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

      Treatment of recurrent endometrial cancer may include the following:Radiation therapy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.Hormone therapy.Clinical trials of chemotherapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent endometrial carcinoma. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

    6. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Cervical Cancer

      Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the cervix. The cervix is the lower,narrow end of the uterus (the hollow,pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix,the cells of the cervix go through changes ...

    7. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit

      Human PapillomavirusEpidemiologic studies to evaluate risk factors for the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and cervical malignancy demonstrate conclusively a sexual mode of transmission of a carcinogen.[1] It is now widely accepted that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiologic infectious agent.[2,3,4] Other sexually transmitted factors, including herpes simplex virus 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis, may play a cocausative role.[1] The finding of HPV viral DNA integrated in most cellular genomes of invasive cervical carcinomas supports epidemiologic data linking this agent to cervical cancer.[5] More than 80 distinct types of HPV have been identified, approximately 30 of which infect the human genital tract. HPV types 16 and 18 are most often associated with invasive disease. Characterization of carcinogenic risk associated with HPV types is an important step in the process of developing a combination HPV vaccine for the

    8. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

      BackgroundNatural history, incidence, and mortalityIn the United States in 2013, it is estimated that 12,340 cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed and that 4,030 women will die of the disease.[1] These rates had been improving steadily. However, from 2005 to 2009, rates were stable in women younger than 50 years and decreased by 3.0% per year in women aged 50 years and older. From 2005 to 2009, mortality rates were stable among women of all ages.[1] This improvement has been attributed largely to screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test.Invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix results from the progression of preinvasive precursor lesions called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or dysplasia. CIN is histologically graded into mild dysplasia (CIN 1), moderate dysplasia (CIN 2), or severe dysplasia (CIN 3). Not all of these lesions progress to invasive cancer; many mild and moderate lesions regress. A further

    9. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Evidence of Harms

      Abnormal ultrasound typically requires further investigation including endometrial biopsy (sampling). The evidence is solid that endometrial sampling may result in discomfort, bleeding, infection, and rarely uterine perforation. A study designed to evaluate performance, patient acceptance, and cost-effectiveness of blind biopsy, hysteroscopy with biopsy, and ultrasound, in 683 women with vaginal bleeding, reported that minor events, including discomfort and distress, occurred in 16% of women who had hysteroscopy with biopsy, and in 10% of the women who had a blind biopsy.[1] A group of researchers studied 13,600 diagnostic and operative hysteroscopic procedures and found a lower complication rate among diagnostic procedures (0.13%) compared with operative procedures (0.28%).[2] Risks associated with false-positive test results include anxiety and additional diagnostic testing and surgery. Endometrial cancers may be missed on endometrial sampling and ultrasound.References: Critchley

    10. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

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