Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage
A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Stage I Endometrial CancerTreatment of stage I endometrial cancer may include the following:Surgery (total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy). Lymph nodes in the pelvis and abdomen may also be removed and viewed under a microscope to check for cancer cells.Surgery (total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with or without removal of lymph nodes in the pelvis and abdomen) followed by internal or external radiation therapy to the pelvis. After surgery, a plastic cylinder containing a source of radiation may be placed in the vagina to kill any remaining cancer cells.Radiation therapy alone for patients who cannot have surgery.Clinical trials of new types of treatment.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - What is screening?
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Placental-Site Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor Treatment
Given the rarity of this tumor, reports of therapeutic results are confined to relatively small case series with accrual extending for very long time periods. Therefore, few reliable comparisons among surgical approaches or chemotherapeutic regimens can be made. Nevertheless, there are distinctions in underlying biology between placental-site gestational trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs) and the other gestational trophoblastic tumors—particularly resistance to chemotherapy—that justify specific treatment strategies, such as the following: Tumors confined to the uterus (Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique [FIGO] Stage I).Hysterectomy is the treatment of choice.[1,2] In a relatively large, retrospective, population-based, consecutive, case series of 62 women with PSTT, 33 had disease confined to the uterus and were treated with hysterectomy (n = 17) or with hysterectomy plus chemotherapy (n = 16). Overall survival at 10 years was virtually identical between the
Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
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Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 22 / 2014)
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062938-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Uterine Sarcoma Treatment
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent and Resistant Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
Recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the uterus or in other parts of the body.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that does not respond to treatment is called resistant GTN.
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the cervix.The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium. Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which cells that are not normal begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Later, cancer cells start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about cervical cancer:Cervical Cancer PreventionCervical Cancer TreatmentScreening for cervical cancer using the Pap
Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Endometrial Cancer
The most common endometrial cancer cell type is endometrioid adenocarcinoma, which is composed of malignant glandular epithelial elements; an admixture of squamous metaplasia is not uncommon. Adenosquamous tumors contain malignant elements of both glandular and squamous epithelium; clear cell and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium are tumors that are histologically similar to those noted in the ovary and the fallopian tube, and the prognosis is worse for these tumors. Mucinous, squamous, and undifferentiated tumors are rarely encountered. Frequency of endometrial cancer cell types is as follows: Endometrioid (75%–80%). Ciliated adenocarcinoma.Secretory adenocarcinoma.Papillary or villoglandular.Adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation.Adenoacanthoma.Adenosquamous.Uterine papillary serous (<10%).Mucinous (1%).Clear cell (4%).Squamous cell (<1%).Mixed (10%).Undifferentiated.References: Zaino RJ, Kurman R, Herbold D, et al.: The significance of squamous
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Harm
Annually in the United States, an estimated 65 million women undergo cervical cancer screening; about 3.9 million (6%) will be referred for further evaluation. About 11,000 cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed in 2008. Thus, Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening results in a large number of colposcopies for benign conditions.The major potential harm of screening for cervical cancer lies in the screening detection of many cytologic abnormalities such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), the majority of which would never progress to cervical cancer. Women with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive ASCUS or LSIL on Pap testing are usually referred for colposcopy. Histological CIN 2+ is treated with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure. These procedures permanently alter the cervix and have consequences on fertility and pregnancy. Younger women are more likely to acquire HPV