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    Cervical Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

    1. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (04 / 12 / 2013)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. This summary was renamed from Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia Treatment.General Information About Gestational Trophoblastic Disease This section was renamed from General Information About Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia.Revised text to state that gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a broad term encompassing both benign and malignant growths arising from products of conception in the uterus.Revised text to state that GTD may be classified as: hydatidiform mole (HM) including complete HM and partial HM; gestational trophoblastic neoplasia including Invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, and placental-site trophoblastic tumor; and, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor.Cellular Classification of Gestational Trophoblastic DiseaseThis section was renamed from Cellular

    2. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Cervical Cancer

      Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the cervix.The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium. Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which cells that are not normal begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Later, cancer cells start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about cervical cancer:Cervical Cancer PreventionCervical Cancer TreatmentScreening for cervical cancer using the Pap

    3. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      Patients with endometrial cancer who have localized disease are usually curable by hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Best results are obtained with either of two standard treatments: hysterectomy or hysterectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy (when deep invasion of the myometrial muscle [50% of the depth] or grade 3 tumor with myometrial invasion is present). Results of two randomized trials on the use of external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with stage I disease did not show improved survival but did show reduced locoregional recurrence (3%–4% vs. 12%–14% after 5–6 years' median follow-up, P 50% myometrial invasion or grade 3 with <50% myometrial invasion).[4]Vaginal cuff

    4. Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    5. Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Cervical Cancer Treatment

      The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[1] Patterns-of-care studies in stage IIIA/IIIB patients indicate that survival is dependent on the extent of the disease, with unilateral pelvic wall involvement predicting a better outcome than bilateral involvement, which in turn predicts a better outcome than involvement of the lower third of the vaginal wall.[2] These studies also reveal a progressive increase in local control and survival paralleling a progressive increase in paracentral (point A) dose and use of intracavitary treatment. The highest rate of central control was seen with paracentral (point A) doses of more than 85 Gy.[3] Patients who are surgically staged as part of a clinical trial and are found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with external-beam pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy. If postoperative external-beam radiation

    6. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Endometrial Cancer

      The most common endometrial cancer cell type is endometrioid adenocarcinoma, which is composed of malignant glandular epithelial elements; an admixture of squamous metaplasia is not uncommon. Adenosquamous tumors contain malignant elements of both glandular and squamous epithelium;[1] clear cell and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium are tumors that are histologically similar to those noted in the ovary and the fallopian tube, and the prognosis is worse for these tumors.[2] Mucinous, squamous, and undifferentiated tumors are rarely encountered. Frequency of endometrial cancer cell types is as follows: Endometrioid (75%–80%). Ciliated adenocarcinoma.Secretory adenocarcinoma.Papillary or villoglandular.Adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation.Adenoacanthoma.Adenosquamous.Uterine papillary serous (<10%).Mucinous (1%).Clear cell (4%).Squamous cell (<1%).Mixed (10%).Undifferentiated.References: Zaino RJ, Kurman R, Herbold D, et al.: The significance of squamous

    7. Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    8. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Endometrial Cancer

      Standard treatment options:In general, patients with stage III endometrial cancer are treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, or both. For many years, radiation therapy was the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with endometrial cancer. However, several randomized trials have confirmed improved survival when adjuvant chemotherapy is used instead of radiation therapy. In a trial conducted in a subset of patients with stage III or IV disease with residual tumors smaller than 2 cm and no parenchymal organ involvement, the use of the combination of cisplatin and doxorubicin resulted in improved overall survival (OS) compared with whole-abdominal radiation therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval limits, 0.52–0.89; P = .02; 5-year survival rates of 55% vs. 42%).[1][Level of evidence: 1iiA] In a subsequent trial, paclitaxel with doxorubicin had an outcome similar to that of cisplatin with doxorubicin.[2,3] The three-drug regimen

    9. Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Uterine Sarcoma

      The most common histologic types of uterine sarcomas include:Carcinosarcomas (mixed mesodermal sarcomas [40%–50%]).Leiomyosarcomas (30%).Endometrial stromal sarcomas (15%).The uterine neoplasm classification of the International Society of Gynecologic Pathologists and the World Health Organization uses the term carcinosarcomas for all primary uterine neoplasms containing malignant elements of both epithelial and stromal light microscopic appearances, regardless of whether malignant heterologous elements are present.[1]References: Silverberg SG, Major FJ, Blessing JA, et al.: Carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mesodermal tumor) of the uterus. A Gynecologic Oncology Group pathologic study of 203 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9 (1): 1-19, 1990.

    10. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      Surgery is often the principal means of diagnosis and is the primary treatment for all patients with uterine sarcoma. If the diagnosis is known, the extent of surgery is planned according to the stage of the tumor. Hysterectomy is usually performed when a uterine malignancy is suspected, except for rare instances when preservation of the uterus in a young patient is deemed safe for the type of cancer (e.g., a totally confined low-grade leiomyosarcoma in a woman who desires to retain childbearing potential). Medically suitable patients with the preoperative diagnosis of uterine sarcoma are considered candidates for abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic and periaortic selective lymphadenectomy. Cytologic washings are obtained from the pelvis and abdomen. Thorough examination of the diaphragm, omentum, and upper abdomen is performed. There is no firm evidence from a prospective study that adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy is of benefit for patients

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