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    Cervical Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

    1. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Endometrial Cancer

      Definitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define endometrial cancer; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2]Carcinosarcomas should be staged as carcinoma.[2] FIGO stages are further subdivided by the histologic grade of the tumor, for example, stage IC G2.Table 1. Carcinoma of the EndometriumaStagea Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.[1]b Either G1, G2, or G3 (G = grade).c Endocervical glandular involvement only should be considered as stage I and no longer as stage II.d Positive cytology has to be reported separately without changing the stage.IbTumor confined to the corpus uteri.IAbNo or less than half myometrial invasion.IBbInvasion equal to or more than half of the myometrium.IIbTumor invades cervical stroma but does not extend beyond the uterus.cIIIbLocal and/or regional spread of the tumor.IIIAbTumor invades the serosa of the corpus

    2. Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit

      Human PapillomavirusEpidemiologic studies to evaluate risk factors for the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and cervical malignancy demonstrate conclusively a sexual mode of transmission of a carcinogen.[1] It is now widely accepted that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiologic infectious agent.[2,3,4] Other sexually transmitted factors, including herpes simplex virus 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis, may play a cocausative role.[1] The finding of HPV viral DNA integrated in most cellular genomes of invasive cervical carcinomas supports epidemiologic data linking this agent to cervical cancer.[5] More than 80 distinct types of HPV have been identified, approximately 30 of which infect the human genital tract. HPV types 16 and 18 are most often associated with invasive disease. Characterization of carcinogenic risk associated with HPV types is an important step in the process of developing a combination HPV vaccine for the

    3. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages IB and IIA Cervical Cancer Treatment

      Either radiation therapy or radical hysterectomy and bilateral lymph node dissection results in cure rates of 85% to 90% for women with Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) stages IA2 and IB1 small-volume disease. The choice of either treatment depends on patient factors and available local expertise. A randomized trial reported identical 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival rates when comparing radiation therapy to radical hysterectomy.[1] The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[2] For adenocarcinomas that expand the cervix more than 4 cm, the primary treatment should be concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.[3] After surgical staging, patients found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy.[4] The resection of

    4. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 18 / 2012)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Stage Information for Uterine SarcomaUpdated staging information for 2010 (cited Pecorelli and Edge et al. as references 1 and 2, respectively).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    5. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    6. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Endometrial Cancer

      Standard treatment options:In general, patients with stage III endometrial cancer are treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, or both. For many years, radiation therapy was the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with endometrial cancer. However, several randomized trials have confirmed improved survival when adjuvant chemotherapy is used instead of radiation therapy. In a trial conducted in a subset of patients with stage III or IV disease with residual tumors smaller than 2 cm and no parenchymal organ involvement, the use of the combination of cisplatin and doxorubicin resulted in improved overall survival (OS) compared with whole-abdominal radiation therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval limits, 0.52–0.89; P = .02; 5-year survival rates of 55% vs. 42%).[1][Level of evidence: 1iiA] In a subsequent trial, paclitaxel with doxorubicin had an outcome similar to that of cisplatin with doxorubicin.[2,3] The three-drug regimen

    7. Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Uterine Sarcoma

      Definitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define carcinoma of the corpus uteri, which applies to uterine sarcoma; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2]Uterine sarcomas include leiomyosarcomas, endometrial stromal sarcomas, and adenosarcomas. Table 1. Uterine SarcomaaStagea Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.[1]b Either G1, G2, or G3 (G = grade).c Endocervical glandular involvement only should be considered as stage I and no longer as stage II.d Positive cytology has to be reported separately without changing the stage.IbTumor confined to the corpus uteri.IAbNo or less than half myometrial invasion.IBbInvasion equal to or more than half of the myometrium.IIbTumor invades cervical stroma but does not extend beyond the uterus.cIIIbLocal and/or regional spread of the tumor.IIIAbTumor invades the serosa of the corpus uteri and/or

    8. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages IIB, III, and IVA Cervical Cancer Treatment

      Either radiation therapy or radical hysterectomy results in cure rates of 75% to 80%. The selection of either option depends on patient factors and local expertise. A randomized trial reported identical 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival rates when radiation therapy was compared with radical hysterectomy.[1] The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[2] For patients with bulky (>6 cm) endocervical squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, treatment with high-dose radiation therapy will achieve local control and survival rates comparable to treatment with radiation therapy plus hysterectomy. Surgery after radiation therapy may be indicated for some patients with tumors confined to the cervix that respond incompletely to radiation therapy or in whom vaginal anatomy precludes optimal brachytherapy.[3] After surgical staging, patients found to have small volume para-aortic nodal

    9. Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Endometrial Cancer

      For more information from the National Cancer Institute about endometrial cancer, see the following: Endometrial Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Cancer of the UterusEndometrial Cancer PreventionEndometrial Cancer ScreeningTamoxifen: Questions and AnswersFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

    10. Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage II Uterine Sarcoma

      Standard treatment options:Surgery (total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic and periaortic selective lymphadenectomy).Surgery plus pelvic radiation therapy.Surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy.Surgery plus adjuvant radiation therapy (EORTC-55874).In a nonrandomized, Gynecologic Oncology Group study in patients with stage I and II carcinosarcomas, those who had pelvic radiation therapy had a significant reduction of recurrences within the radiation treatment field but no alteration in survival.[1] One nonrandomized study that predominantly included patients with carcinosarcomas appeared to show benefit for adjuvant therapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin.[2]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage II uterine sarcoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical

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