Recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the uterus or in other parts of the body.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that does not respond to treatment is called resistant GTN.
Separate PDQ summaries on Prevention of Endometrial Cancer; Endometrial Cancer Treatment; and Uterine Sarcoma Treatment are also available. Benefits There is inadequate evidence that screening by ultrasonography (e.g.,transvaginal ultrasound [TVU]) or endometrial sampling would reduce the mortality from endometrial cancer. Description of the Evidence STUDY DESIGN: No studies have adequately ...
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. General Information About Endometrial CancerRevised text to state that cancer of the endometrium is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States, and irregular vaginal bleeding is an early sign and foremost symptom of the highly curable endometrial tumor.Revised text to state that although the collection of cytology specimen is still suggested, a positive result does not upstage the disease. Stage Information for Endometrial CancerAdded text to state that Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stages are further subdivided by the histologic grade of the tumor, for example, stage IC G2.Treatment Option OverviewAdded text to state that the results of a study by the Danish Endometrial Cancer Group also suggest that the absence of radiation does not improve the
Standard treatment options:Treatment of patients with stage IV endometrial cancer is dictated by the site of metastatic disease and symptoms related to disease sites. For bulky pelvic disease, radiation therapy consisting of a combination of intracavitary and external-beam radiation therapy is used. When distant metastases, especially pulmonary metastases, are present, hormonal therapy is indicated and useful. Observational studies support maximal cytoreductive surgery for patients with stage IV disease, although these conclusions need to be interpreted with care because of the small number of cases and likely selection bias.When possible, patients with stage IV endometrial cancer are treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, or both. For many years, radiation therapy was the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with endometrial cancer. However, several randomized trials have confirmed improved survival when adjuvant chemotherapy is used instead of
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Epidemiology of Endometrial CancerIncidence and mortalityEndometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic cancer in U.S. women, with an estimated 49,560 new cases expected to occur in 2013 and an estimated 8,190 women expected to die of the disease. Endometrial cancer is primarily a disease of postmenopausal women with a mean age at diagnosis of 60 years. Age-adjusted endometrial cancer incidence in the United States has declined since 1975, with a transient increase in incidence occurring from 1973 to 1978, which was associated with estrogen therapy, also known as hormone therapy; there was no associated increase in mortality. From 2005 to 2009, incidence rates of endometrial cancer were stable in white women but increased in African American women by 2.2% per year. The endometrial cancer mortality rates are stable in white women but increased slightly (by 0.4% per year) in African American women from 2005 to 2009. Most cases of endometrial cancer are
Squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinoma comprises approximately 90%, and adenocarcinoma comprises approximately 10% of cervical cancers. Adenosquamous and small cell carcinomas are relatively rare. Primary sarcomas of the cervix have been described occasionally, and malignant lymphomas of the cervix, primary and secondary, have also been reported.
Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of cervical cancer screening include the following: False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal even though cervical cancer is present. A woman who receives a false-negative test result (one that shows there is no cancer when there really is) may delay seeking medical care even if she has symptoms.False-positive test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be abnormal even though no cancer is present. Also, some abnormal cells in the cervix never become cancer. A false-positive test result (one that shows there is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by