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    Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit

    Vaccine Efficacy of the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine continued...

    Cigarette Smoking

    Cigarette smoking by women is associated with an increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma.[1,19,20] This risk increases with longer duration and intensity of smoking and may be present with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, being as high as four times that of women who are nonsmokers and are not exposed to environmental smoking.[1] Case-control studies of women infected with HPV have examined the effect of various types and levels of tobacco exposure and found similar results.[20,21]

    Reproductive Behavior

    High parity has long been recognized as a risk factor for cervical cancer, but the relation of parity to HPV infection was uncertain. A meta-analysis of 25 epidemiologic studies, including 16,563 women with cervical cancer and 33,542 women without cervical cancer, showed that the number of full-term pregnancies was associated with increased risk, regardless of age at first pregnancy. This finding was also true if analyses were limited to patients with high-risk HPV infections (relative risk = 4.99 [3.49-7.13] for seven or more pregnancies versus no pregnancies; linear trend test x2 = 30.69; P < .001).[22]

    Long-term use of oral contraceptives has also been known to be associated with cervical cancer, but its relation to HPV infection was also uncertain. A pooled analysis of HPV-positive women from the studies described above was undertaken. Compared with women who have never used oral contraceptives, those who have used them for fewer than 5 years did not have an increased risk of cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52-1.03). The OR for women who used oral contraceptives for 5 to 9 years was 2.82 (1.46-5.42), and for 10 or more years, the OR was 4.03 (2.09-8.02).[23] A meta-analysis of 24 epidemiological studies confirmed the increased risk associated with oral contraceptives, which is proportionate to the duration of use. Risk decreases after cessation and returns to normal risk levels in 10 years.[24]


    1. Brinton LA: Epidemiology of cervical cancer--overview. IARC Sci Publ (119): 3-23, 1992.
    2. Schiffman MH, Bauer HM, Hoover RN, et al.: Epidemiologic evidence showing that human papillomavirus infection causes most cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (12): 958-64, 1993.
    3. Ley C, Bauer HM, Reingold A, et al.: Determinants of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. J Natl Cancer Inst 83 (14): 997-1003, 1991.
    4. Muñoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S, et al.: The causal link between human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer: a population-based case-control study in Colombia and Spain. Int J Cancer 52 (5): 743-9, 1992.
    5. Reeves WC, Rawls WE, Brinton LA: Epidemiology of genital papillomaviruses and cervical cancer. Rev Infect Dis 11 (3): 426-39, 1989 May-Jun.
    6. Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Bratti C, et al.: Population-based study of human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia in rural Costa Rica. J Natl Cancer Inst 92 (6): 464-74, 2000.
    7. Parazzini F, Negri E, La Vecchia C, et al.: Barrier methods of contraception and the risk of cervical neoplasia. Contraception 40 (5): 519-30, 1989.
    8. Hildesheim A, Brinton LA, Mallin K, et al.: Barrier and spermicidal contraceptive methods and risk of invasive cervical cancer. Epidemiology 1 (4): 266-72, 1990.
    9. Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, et al.: Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med 354 (25): 2645-54, 2006.
    10. Wallin KL, Wiklund F, Angström T, et al.: Type-specific persistence of human papillomavirus DNA before the development of invasive cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 341 (22): 1633-8, 1999.
    11. Mao C, Koutsky LA, Ault KA, et al.: Efficacy of human papillomavirus-16 vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 107 (1): 18-27, 2006.
    12. Castle PE, Schiffman M, Wheeler CM, et al.: Evidence for frequent regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-grade 2. Obstet Gynecol 113 (1): 18-25, 2009.
    13. Romanowski B, de Borba PC, Naud PS, et al.: Sustained efficacy and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial up to 6.4 years. Lancet 374 (9706): 1975-85, 2009.
    14. FUTURE II Study Group: Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med 356 (19): 1915-27, 2007.
    15. Hildesheim A, Herrero R, Wacholder S, et al.: Effect of human papillomavirus 16/18 L1 viruslike particle vaccine among young women with preexisting infection: a randomized trial. JAMA 298 (7): 743-53, 2007.
    16. Muñoz N, Bosch FX, Castellsagué X, et al.: Against which human papillomavirus types shall we vaccinate and screen? The international perspective. Int J Cancer 111 (2): 278-85, 2004.
    17. Stewart BW, Kleihues P, eds.: World Cancer Report 2003. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2003. Also available online. Last accessed October 17, 2014.
    18. Kreimer AR, González P, Katki HA, et al.: Efficacy of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against anal HPV 16/18 infection among young women: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. Lancet Oncol 12 (9): 862-70, 2011.
    19. Hellberg D, Nilsson S, Haley NJ, et al.: Smoking and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: nicotine and cotinine in serum and cervical mucus in smokers and nonsmokers. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158 (4): 910-3, 1988.
    20. Brock KE, MacLennan R, Brinton LA, et al.: Smoking and infectious agents and risk of in situ cervical cancer in Sydney, Australia. Cancer Res 49 (17): 4925-8, 1989.
    21. Ho GY, Kadish AS, Burk RD, et al.: HPV 16 and cigarette smoking as risk factors for high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Int J Cancer 78 (3): 281-5, 1998.
    22. International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer: Cervical carcinoma and reproductive factors: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 16,563 women with cervical carcinoma and 33,542 women without cervical carcinoma from 25 epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer 119 (5): 1108-24, 2006.
    23. Moreno V, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, et al.: Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical cancer in women with human papillomavirus infection: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Lancet 359 (9312): 1085-92, 2002.
    24. Appleby P, Beral V, Berrington de González A, et al.: Cervical cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data for 16,573 women with cervical cancer and 35,509 women without cervical cancer from 24 epidemiological studies. Lancet 370 (9599): 1609-21, 2007.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: 8/, 015
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