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Significance

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    Major differences exist between black and white women in stages of endometrial cancer at detection and at subsequent survival. Although the incidence of endometrial cancer is lower among black women, mortality is higher. The National Cancer Institute initiated a Black/White Cancer Survival Study [15] and concluded that higher-grade and more aggressive histologies appear to be related to excess risk of advanced-stage disease in black women. It is difficult to disentangle the effects that biology and socioeconomic status may have on the lower survival rates of African American women with endometrial cancer. Evidence suggests that lower income is associated with advanced-stage disease, lower probability of undergoing a hysterectomy, and lower survival rates.[16] Others, however, assert that there is no black/white difference in the interval from patient-reported symptoms to initial medical consultation, making it unlikely that patient delay after onset of symptoms could explain much of the excess of advanced-stage disease found in black women.[17] Further research is necessary to understand why black women tend to be diagnosed with more aggressive disease and have a higher probability of dying than white women, despite their lower incidence of endometrial cancer.

    References:

    1. American Cancer Society.: Cancer Facts and Figures 2013. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2013. Available online. Last accessed March 13, 2013.
    2. American Cancer Society.: Detailed Guide: Endometrial Cancer: What are the Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer? Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2005. Available online. Last accessed February 15, 2013.
    3. Jick H, Walker AM, Rothman KJ: The epidemic of endometrial cancer: a commentary. Am J Public Health 70 (3): 264-7, 1980.
    4. Pike MC, Peters RK, Cozen W, et al.: Estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and endometrial cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 89 (15): 1110-6, 1997.
    5. Persson I, Weiderpass E, Bergkvist L, et al.: Risks of breast and endometrial cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement. Cancer Causes Control 10 (4): 253-60, 1999.
    6. Heiss G, Wallace R, Anderson GL, et al.: Health risks and benefits 3 years after stopping randomized treatment with estrogen and progestin. JAMA 299 (9): 1036-45, 2008.
    7. Doherty JA, Cushing-Haugen KL, Saltzman BS, et al.: Long-term use of postmenopausal estrogen and progestin hormone therapies and the risk of endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 197 (2): 139.e1-7, 2007.
    8. Barakat RR, Bundy BN, Spirtos NM, et al.: Randomized double-blind trial of estrogen replacement therapy versus placebo in stage I or II endometrial cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 24 (4): 587-92, 2006.
    9. Cuzick J, Forbes JF, Sestak I, et al.: Long-term results of tamoxifen prophylaxis for breast cancer--96-month follow-up of the randomized IBIS-I trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 99 (4): 272-82, 2007.
    10. Watson P, Vasen HF, Mecklin JP, et al.: The risk of endometrial cancer in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Am J Med 96 (6): 516-20, 1994.
    11. Aarnio M, Mecklin JP, Aaltonen LA, et al.: Life-time risk of different cancers in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Int J Cancer 64 (6): 430-3, 1995.
    12. Aarnio M, Sankila R, Pukkala E, et al.: Cancer risk in mutation carriers of DNA-mismatch-repair genes. Int J Cancer 81 (2): 214-8, 1999.
    13. Berends MJ, Wu Y, Sijmons RH, et al.: Toward new strategies to select young endometrial cancer patients for mismatch repair gene mutation analysis. J Clin Oncol 21 (23): 4364-70, 2003.
    14. Boks DE, Trujillo AP, Voogd AC, et al.: Survival analysis of endometrial carcinoma associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 102 (2): 198-200, 2002.
    15. Barrett RJ 2nd, Harlan LC, Wesley MN, et al.: Endometrial cancer: stage at diagnosis and associated factors in black and white patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173 (2): 414-22; discussion 422-3, 1995.
    16. Madison T, Schottenfeld D, James SA, et al.: Endometrial cancer: socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic differences in stage at diagnosis, treatment, and survival. Am J Public Health 94 (12): 2104-11, 2004.
    17. Coates RJ, Click LA, Harlan LC, et al.: Differences between black and white patients with cancer of the uterine corpus in interval from symptom recognition to initial medical consultation (United States). Cancer Causes Control 7 (3): 328-36, 1996.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: February 25, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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