Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)
Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition in which abnormal cell growth occurs on the surface lining of the cervix, the opening between the uterus and the vagina. Strongly associated with sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical dysplasia is most common in women under age 30 but can develop at any age.
Cervical dysplasia usually causes no symptoms, and is most often discovered by a routine Pap test. The prognosis is excellent for women with cervical dysplasia who...
Treatment of patients with stage IV endometrial cancer is dictated by the site of metastatic disease and symptoms related to disease sites. For bulky pelvic disease, radiation therapy consisting of a combination of intracavitary and external-beam radiation therapy is used. When distant metastases, especially pulmonary metastases, are present, hormonal therapy is indicated and useful.
The most common hormonal treatment has been progestational agents, which produce good antitumor responses in as many as 15% to 30% of patients. These responses are associated with significant improvement in survival. Progesterone and estrogen hormone receptors have been identified in endometrial carcinoma tissues. Responses to hormones are correlated with the presence and level of hormone receptors and the degree of tumor differentiation. Standard progestational agents include hydroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone, and megestrol.
Several randomized trials by the Gynecologic Oncology Group have utilized the known antitumor activity of doxorubicin. The addition of cisplatin to doxorubicin increased response rates and progression-free survival (PFS) over doxorubicin alone but without an effect on overall survival (OS). However, in a trial conducted in a subset of patients with stage III or IV disease with residual tumors smaller than 2 cm and no parenchymal organ involvement, the use of the combination of cisplatin and doxorubicin resulted in improved OS compared to whole-abdominal radiation therapy (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.68; 95% confidence interval limits, 0.52-0.89; P = .02; 5-year survival rates of 55% vs. 42%).[Level of evidence: 1iiA] In a subsequent trial, paclitaxel with doxorubicin had a similar outcome to cisplatin with doxorubicin.[4,5] The three-drug regimen (doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, however, was significantly superior to cisplatin plus doxorubicin: response rates were 57% versus 34%, PFS was 8.3 months versus 5.3 months, and OS was 15.3 months versus 12.3 months, respectively. The superior regimen was associated with a 12% grade 3 and a 27% grade 2 peripheral neuropathy.[4,5][Level of evidence: 1iiDiv]
Treatment options under clinical evaluation:
No standard chemotherapy program is available for patients with metastatic uterine cancer, though doxorubicin has activity. Some studies have demonstrated activity of doxorubicin-containing combinations, though no prospective comparison of single-agent versus combination chemotherapy is available that has demonstrated superiority of the combinations.[6,7]
Paclitaxel has demonstrated antitumor activity and has been evaluated.
All patients with advanced disease should be considered for clinical trials that evaluate single-agent or combination therapy for this disease.