Skip to content

    Cervical Cancer Health Center

    Font Size

    Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Hydatidiform Mole (HM) Management

    Treatment of HM is within the purview of the obstetrician/gynecologist and will not be discussed separately here. However, following the diagnosis and treatment of HM, patients should be monitored to rule out the possibility of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. In almost all cases, this can be performed with routine monitoring of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) to document its return to normal. An effective form of contraception is important during the follow-up period to avoid the confusion that can occur with a rising beta-hCG as a result of pregnancy.

    Chemotherapy is necessary when there is the following:

    Recommended Related to Cervical Cancer

    General Information About Cervical Cancer

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and it has the fourth highest mortality rate among cancers in women.[1] Most cases of cervical cancer are preventable by routine screening and by treatment of precancerous lesions. As a result, most of the cervical cancer cases are diagnosed in women who live in regions with inadequate screening protocols. Incidence and Mortality Estimated new cases and deaths from cervical (uterine cervix) cancer in the United States...

    Read the General Information About Cervical Cancer article > >

    1. A rising beta-hCG titer for 2 weeks (3 titers).
    2. A tissue diagnosis of choriocarcinoma.
    3. A plateau of the beta-hCG for 3 weeks.
    4. Persistence of detectable beta-hCG 6 months after mole evacuation.
    5. Metastatic disease.
    6. An elevation in beta-hCG after a normal value.
    7. Postevacuation hemorrhage not caused by retained tissues.

    Chemotherapy is ultimately required for persistence or neoplastic transformation in about 15% to 20% of patients after evacuation of a complete HM but for fewer than 5% of patients with partial HM. Chemotherapy is determined by the patient's modified World Health Organization score.

    In women with complete HM, risk of persistence or neoplastic transformation is approximately doubled in the setting of certain characteristics, which include the following:

    • Age older than 35 years or age younger than 20 years.
    • Pre-evacuation serum beta-hCG greater than 100,000 IU/L.
    • Large-for-date uterus.
    • Large uterine molar mass.
    • Large (>6 cm) ovarian cysts.
    • Pre-eclampsia.
    • Hyperthyroidism.
    • Hyperemesis of pregnancy.
    • Trophoblastic embolization.
    • Disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Studies have shown that a single course of prophylactic dactinomycin or methotrexate can decrease the risk of a postmolar gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).[1,2,3] However, there is concern that chemoprophylaxis increases tumor resistance to standard therapy in the women who subsequently develop GTD.[1] Therefore, this practice is generally limited to countries in which a large number of women do not return for follow-up.

    Current Clinical Trials

    Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with hydatidiform mole. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

    1 | 2
    Next Article:

    Today on WebMD

    cancer cell
    HPV is the top cause. Find out more.
    doctor and patient
    Get to know the symptoms.
    sauteed cherry tomatoes
    Fight cancer one plate at a time.
    Lung cancer xray
    See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
    Integrative Medicine Cancer Quiz
    Lifestyle Tips for Depression Slideshow
    Screening Tests for Women
    what is your cancer risk