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    Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

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    Reproductive Behavior

    High parity

    Based on solid evidence, high parity is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer.

    Magnitude of Effect: Among HPV-infected women, those who have had seven or more full-term pregnancies have approximately four times the risk of squamous cell cancer compared with nulliparous women, and two to three times the risk of women who have had one or two full-term pregnancies.[1]

    Study Design: Evidence obtained from cohort or case-control studies.
    Internal Validity: Good.
    Consistency: Good.
    External Validity: Good.

    Long-term use of oral contraceptives

    Based on solid evidence, long-term use of oral contraceptives is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer.

    Magnitude of Effect: Among HPV-infected women, those who used oral contraceptives for 5 to 9 years have approximately three times the incidence of invasive cancer, and those who used them for 10 years or longer have approximately four times the risk.[2]

    Study Design: Evidence obtained from cohort or case-control studies.
    Internal Validity: Good.
    Consistency: Good.
    External Validity: Good.

    References:

    1. Muñoz N, Franceschi S, Bosetti C, et al.: Role of parity and human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Lancet 359 (9312): 1093-101, 2002.
    2. Moreno V, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, et al.: Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical cancer in women with human papillomavirus infection: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Lancet 359 (9312): 1085-92, 2002.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: 8/, 015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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