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High-Risk Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (FIGO Score ?7) Treatment


Examples of other regimens that have been used include the following:[1]

  • MAC: Methotrexate, folinic acid, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide.
  • Another MAC: methotrexate, dactinomycin, and chlorambucil.
  • EMA: etoposide, methotrexate, folinic acid, and dactinomycin (EMA/CO without the CO).
  • CHAMOCA: methotrexate, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, melphalan, hydroxyurea, and vincristine.
  • CHAMOMA: methotrexate, folinic acid, hydroxyurea, dactinomycin, vincristine, melphalan, and doxorubicin.

Brain metastases are associated with poor prognosis, particularly when liver metastases are also present.[6,7,8] However, even patients with brain metastases may achieve long-term remission in 50% to 80% of cases.[3,4,8] Patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases receive additional therapy simultaneously with the initiation of systemic chemotherapy. Some centers utilize whole brain irradiation (30 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) with or without intrathecal methotrexate.[6] However, some investigators omit the cranial radiation, relying on replacement of the standard dose of methotrexate in the EMA/CO regimen with the higher dose of 1000 mg/m2 IV for 24 hours on the first day, as noted above, to achieve therapeutic CNS levels.[8]

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with high risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


  1. Deng L, Yan X, Zhang J, et al.: Combination chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD005196, 2009.
  2. Curry SL, Blessing JA, DiSaia PJ, et al.: A prospective randomized comparison of methotrexate, dactinomycin, and chlorambucil versus methotrexate, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, melphalan, hydroxyurea, and vincristine in "poor prognosis" metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Obstet Gynecol 73 (3 Pt 1): 357-62, 1989.
  3. Bower M, Newlands ES, Holden L, et al.: EMA/CO for high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumors: results from a cohort of 272 patients. J Clin Oncol 15 (7): 2636-43, 1997.
  4. Escobar PF, Lurain JR, Singh DK, et al.: Treatment of high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol 91 (3): 552-7, 2003.
  5. Lurain JR, Singh DK, Schink JC: Management of metastatic high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: FIGO stages II-IV: risk factor score > or = 7. J Reprod Med 55 (5-6): 199-207, 2010 May-Jun.
  6. Small W Jr, Lurain JR, Shetty RM, et al.: Gestational trophoblastic disease metastatic to the brain. Radiology 200 (1): 277-80, 1996.
  7. Crawford RA, Newlands E, Rustin GJ, et al.: Gestational trophoblastic disease with liver metastases: the Charing Cross experience. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104 (1): 105-9, 1997.
  8. Newlands ES, Holden L, Seckl MJ, et al.: Management of brain metastases in patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumors. J Reprod Med 47 (6): 465-71, 2002.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: May 16, 2012
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

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