Cancer: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
We've made great progress since President Nixon declared war on cancer 30 years ago, but can the war be won?
Coming Soon? continued...
Other targeted drugs include Erbitux for colon cancer and herceptin for
breast cancer. Both are considered antibodies, which are produced in a
laboratory to target a very specific portion of foreign substances. Another
drug, Gleevec, is a small-molecule drug that targets abnormal proteins that
form inside cancer cells and stimulate uncontrolled growth. It is approved for
certain forms of leukemia and rare stomach cancers.
Overall, these new drugs "absolutely do help, but so far they are not
revolutionary in seeing a halving of incidence of death rates or mortality
rates," he says. "But they certainly suggest that we are making
progress and are perhaps on the edge of making revolutionary progress,"
ACS' Glynn says. "We are in the early stage of drug development and need to
now how best to use these drugs."
Cancer: the Bad and the Ugly
"Some tumors are ugly," says Robert J. Morgan Jr., MD, the section
head of neuro-oncology and a physician in the division of medical oncology and
therapeutics research at the City of Hope National Medical Center in Duarte,
Calif. For example, there has been little progress with treating and beating
brain cancer, he says. "There are two problems," Morgan tells WebMD.
"The first is finding an effective agent and the second is making sure this
agent can cross the blood-brain barrier and get to the tumor," he says.
In 2005, doctors will diagnose 18,500 malignant tumors of the brain or
spinal cord in the U.S. and approximately 12,760 people will die from these
tumors, according to the ACS.
"Pancreatic cancer too turns out to be difficult to detect and
treat," he says. In fact, pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of
Another cancer that doctors have not mastered yet is ovarian cancer.
"Unfortunately, we do not have a reliable screening test for ovarian cancer
because it's a tumor that is 100% curable if caught in stage I with surgery
alone or surgery and chemotherapy, whereas once it has traveled the chances of
cure can drop to as low 5%," he says.
A good screening tool for lung cancer could also help doctors turn a corner
on the disease that recently took the life of ABC News Anchor Peter Jennings.
"People are being hammered to not smoke, but a large number of patients who
don't smoke do develop lung cancers," he says. "We do know that tumors
are different in smokers vs. nonsmokers and we need a better screening test
because low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) scans are expensive, insurance
doesn't pay, and it has a high rate of false-positives leading to unnecessary
surgeries to remove the suspicious nodules."
Melanoma is also proving tricky, says City of Hope's Trisal. "The major
reason is that we don't have any effective therapy for melanoma except surgical
therapy," he tells WebMD. "We don't have any effective chemotherapy
drugs, and we have been looking to vaccines and biological therapy, but the
response rate is minimal." Biological therapies such as interferon utilize
substances that occur naturally in the body to attack cancer cells.
"Earlier detection of melanoma is very effective and we are picking it
up earlier now [due to routine skin checks], but it will take 10 years to see
if we made a difference," he says. But right now, "it's an all-or-none
phenomenon, [meaning that] if you have metastatic (spreading) melanoma in the
lymph nodes, we are fighting a losing battle." If not, it looks good. It's
a big watershed area where people will either be OK or not be OK."